英汉考点900词典

英汉考点900词典。我用来测试搜索功能。

a, an--a, an art.一个Rome was not built in a day.罗马不是一天建成的。【考点】(1)a/an常用在many, such, so, as, half, rather, quite, what, how, too等词的后面。例如:Many a soldier was reluctant to take part in the battle.许多士兵不愿意参加这次战斗。It was so warm a day that we decided to go to the sea.那天天气暖和,所以我们就决定到海边去了。(2)a/an还用在一些词组或搭配中。如:a lot(许多);a bit/little/ few(一些);a great many(许许多多);all of a sudden(突然);for a while(一会儿);take a walk(散步)等。

abandon--abandon v.抛弃,放弃He abandoned his wife and went away with all their savings.他抛弃了妻子并带走了他们所有的积蓄。【考点】 辨析abandon与desert:这两个词都有“抛弃”之意。abandon是指完全、永远的抛弃,既可指物,也可指人,尤指对之负有责任或义务者。例如:She abandoned her child.她遗弃了她的孩子。desert强调故意地违背自己的义务、责任、誓言等。例如:The soldier deserted his country and helped the enemy.那个士兵叛国助敌。

ability--ability n.能力,智能;才能,才干She has the ability to go to college, but she doesn't want to.她有能力上大学,但她不愿去。【考点】(1)辨析 ability, capacity和 capability:这三个词都有“能力”的意思。ability是最普通用语,常指天生的能力和习得的能力。例如:He obtained the position by virtue of his ability.他凭才能爬到这个职位。capacity常指容忍力,也可指人的忍耐力或宽容力。例如:The hall has a seating capacity of 200 persons.这大厅能容纳200人。capability指某一特殊功能。例如:The ear has the capability of distinguishing pitches.耳朵有区别音高的能力。(2)ability后可接动词不定式、介词 in或 for,但不能接 of doing。例如:She has the ability to organize a club in/for organization.她有能力组织一个俱乐部。

absorb--absorb v.吸收;吸引,使专心The clever boy absorbed all the knowledge that his teachers could give him.那聪明的男孩把他老师所能教他的知识完全吸收了。【考点】be absorbed in 专心于例如:She was completely absorbed in her own affairs.她完全专注于她自己的事情。I was absorbed in a book and didn't hear you call.我专心看书来着,没听见你喊。

abstract--abstract adj.抽象的A flower is beautiful but beauty itself is abstract.花是美的,但美的本身是抽象的。【考点】(1)abstract作名词时,作“摘要,提要”讲。例如:Please write an abstract of this scientific article. 请写一份这篇科学文章的摘要。(2)abstract作动词时,作“提(抽)取”讲。例如:We abstract metal from ore.我们从铁矿砂中提炼金属。

abundant--abundant adj.(in)丰富的,充分的,充裕的We have abundant proof of his guilt.我们有充足的证据证明他有罪。【考点】(1)abundant常用在 be abundant in/ with的搭配中,表示“富有……,有大量的……”。例如:Rice is abundant in the river valleys.稻米盛产于河谷。(2)辨析abundant和plentiful:这两个形容词都含有“丰富的”之意。abundant 指人、鱼、鸟、雨水等的量大。例如:The forest is abundant in birds.这片森林里鸟很多。plentiful指量方面的丰富,特指食物、水等事物,不能指思想、言语、时间、空间等。例如:a plentiful supply of food充裕的食品供应

abuse--abuse v.滥用Don't abuse the confidence they have placed in you.不要滥用他们对你的信任。【考点】(1)abuse作动词解时,还有“虐待”和“谩骂”的意思。例如:The landlord had the right to beat, abuse or even kill them at will.地主可以随心所欲地殴打、谩骂甚至杀死他们。The captives in the Kuomingtang camp were abused.国民党军营中的俘虏受到了虐待。(2)abuse作名词解时,还有“弊端”的意思。例如:Such abuse can only be checked by the force of public opinion.这种弊端只能靠舆论的力量来制止。

access--access n.接近,进入;入口,通路;接近(或进入)的方法He is a man of difficult/easy access.他是个很难(容易)接近的人。【考点】have/gain access to表示“可以获得”,其中 to是介词,而不是动词不定式的标记。例如:Students have access to the library during the vacation.学生假期中可以使用图书馆。Only high officials had access to the emperor.只有高级官员可以接近皇帝。

accompany--accompany v.陪同,伴随;为……伴奏He said he was going to accompany her home.他说他要陪她回家。【考点】辨析 accompanied by与 accompanied with:这两个词组结构相似,但意思不同。accompanied by表示“由……伴随”;“在……伴奏下”。其结构为被动语态,by后的名词是动作的执行者。例如:She was accompanied by her brother.她由她的兄弟陪同。accompanied with表示“附加”,并非被动语态,只是用来表示某种状态。例如:All orders must be accompanied with cash. 所有的订货单必须附上现金。

account--account n.账(目,户);叙述,说明She gave him a full account of her conversation with the doctor.她把她与医生的谈话都一五一十地告诉了他。【考点】(1)account作动词时,有“说明,解释”的意思,属不及物动词,所以跟宾语时要先接介词for。例如:He couldn't account for his absence from school.他不能说明缺席的原因。(2)注意下面与account有关的短语的含义:on account of因为,由于例如:I was thinking of going down to Richmond for a fortnight, on account of my health.因为健康原因,我正考虑南下里士满两个星期。On account of holiday our store will be closed tomorrow.由于明天是假日,我们的商店停止营业。take… into account考虑例如:This is not a heavy stone, its size being taken into account.从体积考虑,这不是一块很重的石头。You must take into account the boy's long illness.你一定要考虑到这个孩子已经病了很久。

ache--ache v.痛 n.疼痛,酸痛After climbing the mountain, he ached all over.爬山以后他感觉周身疼痛。【考点】ache也常与表示身体的某些部位的词结合起来,构成合成词。如:headache(头疼), stomachache(肚子疼), toothache(牙疼),earache(耳朵疼)等,这些合成词泛指“疼痛”时,不是可数名词,但 headache除外,它总是用作可数名词。例如:She very often gets stomachache.她经常胃痛。

acquaint--acquaint v.使认识,使了解You must acquaint yourself with your new duties.你应该使自己明白自己的新职责。【考点】acquaint是及物动词,多用在 acquaint sb./oneself with sth.(使某人/自己熟悉某事)或 be acquainted with(使熟悉某事)的结构中。例如:Are you fully acquainted with the facts of the case?你对这些案件的详情完全清楚吗?I've acquainted myself with their customs.我已经熟悉他们的风俗了。

acquire--acquire v.取得,获得;学到It is sometimes possible for a student to master English grammar and acquire a large vocabulary, even without the help of a teacher.有时候学生在没有老师的帮助下掌握英语语法和获得大量词汇是可能的。【考点】辨析acquire, get和gain:这三个词都有“获得”的意思,但侧重点各不相同。acquire多指经过一段时间的艰苦努力而获得,获得的内容多是抽象的东西,并且一经获得就很难失去,如知识等。例如:It is not easy to acquire a knowledge of painting.学画画不是件容易的事。get是一般用语,口语用词,用途很广。例如:He had got what he wanted.他得到了他要的东西。gain常指强有力的夺取,也可指渐渐获得某物的过程。例如:to gain the victory after a bloody battle血战之后,赢得了胜利

act--act n.行为,动作It' s my own act,why do you bring my mother in?那是我做的,为什么要把我母亲扯进来?【考点】(1)act作名词时,可作“法令,条例”解。例如:Congress has passed an act for forbidding the public sale of the drug.国会通过一项法令,禁止公开出售这种麻醉品。The Natural Gas Policy Act was passed.天然气政策法案被通过了。(2)act作名词时可与action替换,不过action常指抽象的行为,而act则指具体的动作。例如:He was caught in the act of stealing.(具体动作)他在偷东西的时候被抓住。We must take action before it is too late.(抽象动作)我们必须采取行动,否则就太晚了。

acute--acute adj.敏锐的,尖锐的After that the struggle inside the party grew more acute.在那以后,党内的斗争变得更加尖锐。【考点】acute作形容词时,还有“(疾病)急性的”的意思,其反义词为chronic,意为“(疾病)慢性的”。例如:Pneumonia is an acute disease.肺炎是一种急性疾病。Rheumatism is a chronic disease.风湿症是一种慢性疾病。

adapt--adapt v.改编,改写;(使)适应,适合Novels are often adapted for the stage, television and radio.小说常被改编成剧本、电视和广播节目。【考点】adapt常用于 adapt oneself to(使某人自己适应于)的结构中,其中to是介词,而不是动词不定式的标记。例如:When you go to a new country you must adapt yourself to new manners and customs.当你到一个新的国家时,你必须使你自己适应新的风俗习惯。They were obliged to adapt themselves to the situation.他们被要求使自己适应形势。

address--address n.地址,通讯处Let me know if you change your address.假若你变更通讯处,请通知我。【考点】(1)address 作名词,还有“致词”之意。例如:The president gave an address to the nation over the radio.总统通过电台向全国致词。(2)address作动词,注意下面两种意思:①致函,写姓名、地址例如:Address me as above.请按上面的地址写信给我。②向……讲话例如:He addressed the audience in an eloquent speech.他向听众发表了雄辩的演说。

administrate--administrate v.掌管,料理……的事务They had the right to administrate their own internal affairs.他们有权利管理他们自己的内部事务。【考点】注意 administrate作动词,还作“实施,执行”、“给予,投药”讲。例如:The Red Cross administrates aid in disaster areas.红十字会在灾区实施救助。They administrated a severe blow to the enemy.他们给予敌人以严重的打击。She administrated the medicine to the sick woman.她给那位女病人吃药。

admit--admit v.让……进入,接纳,承认You must admit that the task is difficult.你必须承认这项工作是很困难的。【考点】(1)表示“承认做过某事”, admit后跟动名词,不可跟动词不定式。例如:They admitted having done wrong.他们承认做了错事。(2)区别 admit, admit of和 admit to;admit可以用人称代词作其主语。例如:He admits having broken the discipline.他承认自己破坏了纪律。admit of 则只能用于表示事或物的名词作其主语。例如:The work admits of delay.这件工作不允许再拖延下去了。admit to是表示“承认”别人的指控。例如:He admits to all the charges.他承认了一切指控。

advance--advance v.提出(建议等);前进;促进;提前The report advances the suggestion that safety standards should be improved. 这份报告提出建议,认为应该改进安全规范。【考点】in advance提前,预先例如:They fulfilled the task in advance.他们提前完成了任务。We always pay the rent in advance.我们总是提早交房租。

advantage--advantage n.优点,有利条件;利益,好处Living in a big town has many advantages, such as good schools, libraries, and theatres.住在大城市有很多便利,例如有好的学校、图书馆和戏院。【考点】注意下面两个短语的含义:have/gain an advantage over胜过,优于例如:This football team has always been capable of gaining an advantage over its opponents by skillful manoeuvring.这个足球队总是能够依靠机智的策略占对手的上风。You see, you have an advantage over me. You can make a dress.你知道,你有一点超过我,你会做衣服。take advantage of利用例如:He took advantage of my good nature.他利用我的忠厚。

advantageous--advantageous adj.有利的I'm very doubtful whether the proposed scheme would be financially advantageous to us.我怀疑所提方案在财政上是否会对我们有好处。【考点】其反义词为 adverse,是“不利的,有害的”的意思。例如:The judgement was adverse to the plaintiff.这判决对原告不利。Dirt and disease are adverse to the best growth of children.肮脏与疾病有害于儿童的健康成长。

advice--advice n.劝告,忠告If you take my advice and study hard, you will pass the examination.如果你听我的劝告用功读书就会考及格。【考点】(1)advice是不可数名词,没有复数形式。只能说:a piece of advice(一条意见);some advice(一些意见)等。(2)advice作名词还特指医生的意见。例如:You won't get well unless you follow your doctor's advice.如果你不遵医生之嘱,你将不会痊愈。

advisable--advisable adj.可取的,适当的It is advisable to wear safety belt when your' re driving.开车时系上安全带是明智的。【考点】advisable常用于“It is advisable that…”句型中,其宾语从句应用虚拟语气。例如:It is advisable that you(should) leave now.你最好现在就离开。

affect--affect v.影响The economic crisis has seriously affected the country's exports.经济危机已严重影响了这个国家的出口。affect v.影响【考点】(1)辨析affect和influence:二者都作“影响”讲。affect指对某人感情上的影响。例如:This may affect your admiration of her; you'd better turn to other way.这可能影响你对她的赞美,你最好改变一下。influence指导致行为、思想、性格的变化。例如:The judge was never influenced in his decisions by his sympathies.这法官的决定从不受同情心的影响。(2)affect作动词,还作“感动”讲。例如:All the people in the room were affected to tears.屋子里所有的人都感动得流泪了。

afford--afford v.给予,供给;担负得起,买得起,花得起This letter seemed to afford her peculiar satisfaction.这封信似乎给予了她特别的满足。【考点】(1)辨析afford和give:这两个词都有“给予,供给”的意思。afford指为了一定目的,满足他人的需要。例如:The sea affords fish which greatly riches our life.大海为我们提供鱼类,这极大地丰富了我们的生活。give是最普通用语,接受者不欢迎也可用此语,它指给予金钱、衣服和通知等。例如:Please give his the coat, you see that he's shivering with cold.请把这件大衣给他,你看他冷得直哆嗦。(2)afford表示“负担得起,买得起,花得起”时,总是和can或be able to连用。例如:His purse could ill afford any but the simplest fare.他只付得起最便宜的饭钱。

agency--agency n.代理处,代办处The company has agencies in all parts of Africa. 该公司在非洲各地均有代理机构。【考点】辨析 agency, agenda和agent:这三个词词形相近,但意思却各不相同。agency意为“代理,代办处”,是指一个机构。例如:He found a job through an employment agency.他经由职业介绍所找到了一份工作。agent意为“代理(商人),代表”,是指一个或一群人。例如:Our agent in Rome deals with all our Italian business.我们在罗马的代理商处理我们在意大利的一切事务。agenda意为“议事日程”。例如:Now let' s come to the next item on the agenda.现在让我们讨论议事日程上的下一个项目。

aggressive--aggressive adj.侵略的,好斗的The aggressive nature of imperialism will never change.帝国主义的侵略本性是决不会改变的。【考点】aggressive作形容词,还有“敢作敢为的,有进取心的”的意思。例如:If you want to be a success in business, you must be aggressive.如果你想要生意成功,就一定要有闯劲。He appeared to be now in a less aggressive mood you should encourage him again.他现在看上去进取心不强,你得再次鼓励他。

agree--agree v.同意,赞成;一致,适合I fully agree with him that it is too late to act now.我完全同意他的意见,现在行动太迟了。【考点】辨析 agree on, agree to和agree with:这三个词组都有“同意”的意思,但它们的用法是有区别的。agree on表示“就……方面取得一致意见”,含有双方或多方商定而形成统一看法的意思。往往是人或团体组织的复数词语作主语,介词on(upon)后常接“计划、协议、条件”等方面的词语。有时为了强调,on短语部分可以提前。例如:Both sides agreed on the terms.双方都同意这些条件。They agreed on a date for the next meeting.他们就下次会议的日期达成了协议。On this we can agree; no sale before January.就这一点,我们可以达成协议,元月份之前不出售。agree to后接计划、建议、条件等名词时,其中 to为介词。这时agree to通常含有主语在看法上和对方一致,而且还意味着同意合作的意思。有时主语含有答应某事、但实际上并不赞成的意思。可用于主动语态和被动语态。例如:I told him about my proposal and he at once agreed to it.我把我的建议告诉他,他立刻同意支持。They agreed to the proposal only under protest.只在抗议的情况下,他们才应允了建议。The terms have now been agreed(to).这些条件已得到同意。agree with后接人或表示事物之类的名词、动名词、从句等。表示:①同意,赞成;②合适,相符,相一致。用于表示①义时,其主语常指人;如果with后接人,实际上相当于同意某人的看法、意见等。用于②义时,其主语常指事物。值得注意的是,agree with一般不能用于被动语态。例如:I agree with you.(=I agree with your views. )我同意你的看法。I don't agree with giving children expensive presents.我不同意送给小孩儿昂贵的礼物。Too much meat doesn't agree with her.吃太多肉对她身体不合适。Your story agrees with what I had already heard.你讲的情况和我听到的情况是一致的。

agreeable--agreeable adj.惬意的,令人愉快的His company is agreeable to us.有他做伴我们感到愉快。【考点】agreeable作形容词,还有“易相处的”的意思。如:an agreeable person易相处的人。例如:Make yourself agreeable to your colleagues.要和同事友好相处。I find her a very agreeable person, which proved that she has so many friends.我发现她平易近人,所以我明白她为何有那么多的朋友。

aid--aid v.援助,救援,帮助 n.援助,救护We ate determined to aid their struggle against violent repression.我们决心帮助他们抵抗暴力镇压的斗争。【考点】aid作名词时,还有“助手,辅助物,辅助设备”的意思。例如:He did not disdain his aid.他没有鄙视他的助手。A dictionary is an important aid in learning a new language.词典是学习新语言的重要工具。

air--air n.神气,架子;空气,大气,天空“What does that matter?”she asked, with a haughty air.“那有什么关系呢?”她带着一种傲慢的神情问道。【考点】(1)in the air在流行中,在传播中例如:There are rumours in the air that an earthquake will happen here soon.有谣言传说这儿很快要发生地震。Baseball is beginning to be in the air in China.棒球运动在中国风行起来。(2)put on airs表示“摆架子”。注意这是个习语,不能把 airs改成单数air;后 面用介词with,不用to。例如:Don't put on airs with me!别对我摆架子!

alarm--alarm v.向……报警 n.警报When the cold wave comes near, the weatherman alarms the residents.寒潮临近的时候,气象员向居民发出警报。【考点】注意 alarm作动词,还作“惊恐,惊动,惊吓”讲。例如:The idea somewhat alarmed his mother.这个想法使他母亲感到惊恐。They were alarmed by a sudden attack.他们因受到突然袭击而惊恐万状。

alien--alien adj.外国的;相异的Alien friends are welcome to the country.这个国家欢迎友好国家的侨民。【考点】alien作形容词,后常跟介词 to,表示“与……相异”。例如:Cruelty is quite alien to his nature.残忍完全不符合他的本性。These principles are alien to our religion. 这些规定与我们的宗教格格不入。

alive--alive adj.活着的;活跃的,热闹的Despite the hard winter, the rose bush is still alive.尽管严冬,玫瑰树丛仍然活着。【考点】辨析alive, live, living和lively:alive, live和 living都有“活的”、“活着的”之意。但 alive只作表语,是指生活的各个阶段。如:all men alive(所有活着的人)。living既可作表语,又可作宾语,仅指非死亡状态。例如:My grandfather is still living at the age of 93.我祖父93岁,现仍在世。而 live 只作定语,如:a live fish(活鱼)。lively形客词,作“充满生气的,活跃的”、“生动的,逼真的”讲,如:a lively description(生动的描述)。还应注意live作形容词,还有“实况播送的”的意思。例如:It was a live broadcast, not a recording.那是现场实况转播,不是录音广播。

allow--allow v.允许,准许;承认,让……得到Only a few journalists were allowed inside.只有少数记者被允许入内。【考点】(1)表达“不准”这个意思时,不用“it is allowed”这种句型,即 allow前面,不用“it”作为句子形式主语。如“图书馆里不准说话”,应译成“People are not allowed to talk in the library.”或“Talking in the library is not allowed.”,不能说成:“It is not allowed to talk in the library.”。(2)与 allow有关的常用词组为 allow for,意为“考虑到”。例如:We must allow for the train being late----it always is.我们必须考虑到火车晚点——总是发生这样的事。 He missed the target because the wind hadn't been allowed for.他没有考虑风力,结果未能打中靶。

almost--almost adv.几乎,差不多I almost dropped the cake.我差一点儿把蛋糕掉了。【考点】almost修饰动词时一般放在主要动词的前面或系动词be 的后面。在修饰动词、形容词、副词、名词时, almost和 nearly常可换用,但在和no, none, nothing, never连用时,只可用almost, 而不能用nearly。例如:She said almost nothing.她几乎什么都没说。

alter--alter v.改变,变更Do you think you will alter your travel plans?你认为你要改变你的旅行计划吗?【考点】比较alter与 change:两者都有“改变”的意思。但change 可以指任何变化,常用来指根本的或完全的变化,而 alter 只意味着局部的或表面的变化。例如:I have to alter my design.我不得不修改我的设计。(部分改变)I have to change my design.我不得不改变我的设计。(全部改变)

amaze--amaze v.使惊奇,使惊愕,使惊叹It amazed me to hear that you were leaving.听到你要走的消息,我大吃一惊。【考点】(1)amazed常用于 be amazed at(对……感到惊讶)的结构中。例如:Visitors were amazed at the soaring drive of our shipbuilders.参观者对我国造船工人的冲天干劲感到惊奇。(2)辨别 amaze, astonish和 surprise:这三个词都有“使人吃惊”之意,但侧重点各不相同。amaze指造成心理上的混乱或困惑。例如:She was too amazed to reply.她如此困惑以至于回答不上来。astonish指因为不可解释的事而吃惊。例如:I was astonished at the news.我听到这消息很吃惊。surprise指由于突然或出于意外而吃惊。例如:He was surprised to see his mother.他看到妈妈时很惊喜。

amend--amend v.修改,修订The new government amended the law.新政府修订了法律。【考点】辨析amend, emend和mend:这三个词都有“修改”之意,但用法各不相同。amend作动词,主要有两种意思:①改善,改进(生活方式、习惯等),改正(过错);②修正(法规、提案等)。amend通常指积极地向好的方面改进。例如:He'll have to amend his style of living.他必须改进生活方式。I would advise you to amend your manners.我劝你改改习惯。This document should be amended. 这份文件应该修订一下。emend是及物动词,表示“修改,改正”的意思,通常指更正某人的文章或书本上的错误等。例如:I am going to emend the second passage in this book.我打算对该书中的第二节进行修改。This edition has been emended.这个版本已经修订过。mend既可用作及物动词,也可用作不及物动词,主要表示:①修补,主要指修补衣服、鞋袜等,间或指修补道路、门窗;②改正(过错),可与 amend换用;③改善,既可指一般情况的改善,也可指病人病情的改善、痊愈。例如:He had sent his shoes there to be mended.他已把鞋子送到那里去补去了。If you do not mend(amend)your ways, you'll never have a bright future.如不改过自新,你是没有好前途的。Things will mend in time.情况迟早会得到改善。The patient is mending nicely.这个病人的病情正在好转。

ample--ample adj.充分的,富裕的With ample moisture stored in the subsoil, the crops matured rapidly.由于下层土壤湿度大,农作物生长迅速。【考点】(1)注意ample作形容词,还有“宽敞的,宽大的”的意思。例如:There' s ample room for all of you in the car.车内的空间足够坐下你们所有的人。The house has an ample yard.这房子有个宽大的庭院。(2)辨析ample, enough, sufficient和adequate:这四个词都表示“充分的”、“足够的”, 在语意上, ample较其他四词语意强烈, 表示不仅达到应有的或能够满足需要的程度, 而且充足有余。例如:They have ample evidence to believe what you said is true.他们有充分的证据相信你所讲的是真实的。enough, sufficient也表示“足够的”, 但不及ample强烈。而adequate则仅表示“刚够的, 正好的”。此外这四个词中, 只有enough可以作后置定语。例如:Do you have time enough to finish all the work?你有足够的时间完成这项工作吗?

ancestor--ancestor n.祖宗, 祖先The two families derived from a common ancestor.这两家同宗。【考点】辨析ancestor和forefather:这两个词都有“祖先”的意思,但所指有所不同。ancestor是指祖先集合称呼, 可以是母系的, 也可以是父系的。例如:Such were the beliefs of our ancestors.这就是我们祖先的信仰。forefather特指男系祖先。例如:Our forefathers began to emigrate to the American Continent at the beginning of 17th century,我们的祖先在17世纪初开始移民到美洲大陆。

angry--angry adj.愤怒的, 生气的I was angry with him for keeping me waiting so long.他让我等了那么久, 我对他生气了。【考点】注意angry 作形容词,还表示“(风雨等)狂暴的”。例如:The angry winds made it impossible for the yacht to leave the harbour.狂风使游艇无法离港。

announce--announce v.宣布, 发表, 通告;报告……的来到Cease -fire will be announced forthwith over the radio.停战的消息即将通过电台宣布。【考点】(1)辨析announce, declare和publish:这三个词都有“宣布、公布”的意思,但侧重点有所不同。announce指预告性的宣布, 如:announce marriage(宣布结婚)。declare指当众发表, 使人明白, 如:declare war(宣战)。publish指公布已打印好的内容, 如:publish law(公布法律)。(2)announce for宣布参加竞选例如:He announced for governor.他宣布竞选州长。

another--another adj.别的, 不同的;另一, 再一pron.另一个, 类似的一个He seems quite another person than what he was.跟以前相比, 他判若两人。【考点】one another表示“互相”, 一般用于三者之间或三者以上。例如:They sat side by side and chattered to one another.他们并肩而坐, 互相喋喋不休地说着。They sat for two hours without talking to one another.他们坐了两个钟头, 谁跟谁都没说一句话。

answer--answer v.回答, 答复, 响应;负责, 保证;符合, 适合He answered frankly and truthfully all my questions.他坦率而真诚地回答了我所有的问题。【考点】(1)辨析词组answer for和answer to:这是两个动介型短语动词, 其后接名词或代词作宾语。answer for主要有两个意思:①困……而受罚或受责备;②对…… 负责。例如:They will have to answer for their crimes.他们必将因其罪行而受到惩罚。We all must answer for our actions.我们都必须对自己的行动负责。answer to最常见的意思也有两个:①符合, 适合于;②表示“对…… 作出反应”, 尤指交通工具等。例如:Does the result answer to your expectations?结果符合你们的愿望吗?The horse answers to the slightest pull on the rein.只要缰绳稍稍一拉, 这匹马就有反应。(2)比较answer和reply:这两个词都有“回答, 答复”的意思。answer指对某问题的回答, 包括口头的、书面的和动作的回答。例如:She gave me a single answer.她简单地回答了我。reply 指对他人的主张的答复。例如:For a moment he did not know how to reply.他一时不知如何对答。

anxious--anxious adj.忧虑的, 担心的, 焦急的;渴望的I was anxious about the children when they didn't come home from school.孩子们放学后没回家, 我很担心。【考点】(1)辨析anxious和eager:从词义上讲, 只有anxious表示“担心”、“焦虑”。anxious和eager都表示“急于”、“渴望”, 但anxious仍不离其原义, 指带有更多的焦急情绪, 对结果或前途的“着急”、“渴望”;eager指带有更多热切兴奋的情绪的积极的“渴望”。例如:He is anxious to know what the message is about.他急着想知道电文的内容。We are all eager for world peace/knowledge.我们都渴望世界和平(获取知识)。(2)辨析anxious about , anxious for 和anxious to:anxious about为……担心;对……着急例如:I'm anxious about the result of the exam.我担心考试成绩。anxious for渴望, 急需例如:I'm anxious for a good result of the exam.我渴望考试取得好成绩。anxious to急于要例如:I'm anxious to know the result of the exam.我急于想知道考试成绩。

appear--appear v. 出现;出场;好像是, 仿佛In this disease spots appear on the skin.得了这种病, 皮肤上会出现斑点。【考点】辨析appear和seem:这两个词都有“似乎”、“好像”之意。appear指从外表看上去似乎如何。例如:He appears ill.他似乎有病。seem指人们心中的“似乎”。例如:The sun seems to move.太阳似乎在移动。

appliance--appliance n.用具, 器具The kitchen is full of electrical appliance, eg. a washing machine, dishwasher,liquidizer, etc.厨房里有各种电器, 如洗衣机、洗碗机、果汁机等。【考点】辨析appliance, facility和equipment:这三者都表示“器具”, 但所指并不一样。appliance指的是较小的器具, 如电炉、电冰箱、高压锅等家用电器, 还常指安装在较大机器上的器具,需要动力操作。例如:The hotel is fitted up with modern appliances.该旅馆配有新式用具。facility 指较大的设备, 如车、船、图书馆、实验室等公用设施。例如:They lack the most elementary sanitary facilities.他们缺乏最基本的卫生设备。equipment则指成套的设备。例如:His firm supplied Kitchen equipment.他的公司提供厨房设备。

apply--apply v.申请, 请求He usually applies to us for help when he is in trouble.他遇到麻烦时常向我们求助。【考点】(1)apply作动词, 还有“适用, 应用, 运用”之意, 后面常接介词to。例如:This rule cannot be applied in every case.这规则并不能适用于所有情况。In this way they can better apply theory to practice.这样他们就能把理论更好地运用到实践中去。(2)apply可用于apply to sb. for sth.(向某人申请某种东西)或apply…to(将……应用到)的结构中, 注意介词的变化。

apprehension--apprehension n.理解, 领悟Educated youth are quick of apprehension. 受过教育的年轻人头脑敏捷。【考点】注意apprehension作名词, 还有“忧虑, 担心, 疑惧”之意。例如:I feel a certain apprehension about my interview tomorrow.我对明天的面试感到有些担心。The little girl had some apprehension about going into the woods alone.小姑娘对独自走进树林有些害怕。

appropriate--appropriate adj. 适当的, 恰如其分的His bright clothes were not appropriate for a funeral.他那鲜艳的衣服不适合参加葬礼。【考点】比较appropriate和suitable:appropriate指特别的适合, 如:speech appropriate to the occasion (适合于这种场合的演讲)。suitable指适合于人的年龄、性格、职业、地位等, 如:a suitable job (一份合适的工作)。

area--area n.地区, 区域;面积There are various kinds of wild animals in this area.这一地区有各种各样的野生动物。【考点】注意area作名词时, 还有“范围, 领域”之意。例如:There have been many developments in the area of language teaching.语言教学领域已有很多新的发展。

argue--argue v.主张, 论证;说服;争论, 辩论It could be argued that sending people to the moon is a waste of money.也许可以辩论说, 把人送上月球是浪费钱财。【考点】(1)argue作“说服”讲时, 常用搭配为 argue sb. into doing sth.(说服某人做某事), 相当于 persuade sb. into doing sth。例如:You want to argue me into agreeing to your proposal?你想说服我同意你的提议吗?(2)辨析 argue about, argue with和 argue against:argue about后通常接“争论”或者“辩论”的内容, 宾语一般是表示事物的名词。例如:Don't argue about trifles.不要为琐碎的小事争论不休。The matter is not worth arguing about.这个问题不值得辩论。They are arguing about who should be assigned the job.他们在争论这工作应分配给谁。argue with后一般接表示人的名词, 表示“跟(与)……争论”的意思。 argue about和 argue with可结合在一起构成argue about sth. with sb.或 argue with sb. about sth.结构。例如:It is no use arguing with people who won't see reason.跟不讲道理的人辩论是没有用处的。They argued with the boss about equal pay for men and women.他们与老板辩论男女同工同酬的问题。argue against有明显的不同意、不服从或反对的意味, 常译为“据理反对, 争辩说不应该”, 有时它可表示“证明……是不能成立的”的意思。例如:He argued against the use of anaesthetics.他据理反对麻醉的作用。Father argued fiercely against any increase in expenditure for the children's annual party. 父亲极其反对为孩子们的每年生日聚会所增加的任何费用。All the evidence argued against the theory that the disease was transmitted by water.所有的证据证明疾病是由水传播的理论是不能成立的。

arm--arm n.(手)臂, 臂状物;扶手, 衣袖;(pl.)[总称]武器, 武装Having failed to resolve their disputes at the conference table, the two countries appealed the arms.在会议桌上解决争端的努力失败以后, 两国便诉诸武力。【考点】辨析arm和weapon:这两个词都有“武器”的意思。arm指为战争而制造的武器。例如:The troops were under arms.军队准备开战。weapon侧重于防身的武器。例如:Each of them carried a long weapon like a spear.他们每人拿着一种长矛似的武器。

ascent--ascent n. 上升;上行;上坡路;向上运动I have never made an ascent in a balloon.我从来没有乘过气球升空。【考点】辨析ascent和assent:这两词均念[+'sent], 但含义和用法却迥然不同。ascent是一个动作名词,表示“上升,上爬”或“上坡路”的意思, 但它可以具体化,即可具体为一次的动作行为, 因此, 其前常可加不定冠词。其动词形式为ascend。例如:We made successful ascent of the mountain.我们成功地爬上了山。The last part of the ascent is steep. 最后一段山坡路很陡。assent既可用作名词, 也可用作动词。作名词用时, 表示“同意(agreement)”的意思, 如需具体说明时, 则同介词to连用。作动词用时, 其后常跟介词to短语, 表示“同意(某建议、想法等)(agree to a suggestion, idea, etc.)”。例如:Once we have his assent we can start.一旦得到他的同意, 我们就可出发。My father will never assent to my spending a holiday abroad before I' m 16.未满16岁, 我父亲绝不会同意我在国外度假。

ashamed--ashamed adj.羞耻, 惭愧, 害臊I feel ashamed that I have done so little for the people.我为人们做的工作太少, 我感到惭愧。【考点】辨析ashamed, shameful和shameless:ashamed常指为自己或别人的言行而感到“羞愧, 羞耻, 害臊”, 常用作表语, 其主语只能是人。其后可接of短语、不定式或that 从句表示原因。例如:Her face turned red, she was surprised and ashamed.她既惊讶又羞愧, 脸刷地变红了。I feel ashamed that you have done such a thing.我为你做这种事而感到害臊。shameful是一个贬意色彩较浓的形容词, 指人或行为本身不光彩、不道德,常译为“可耻的, 不要脸的, 不道德的”。它既可作表语, 亦可作定语。例如:It is shameful to tell lies.撒谎是可耻的。Such shameful conduct should be stopped.这种可耻的行为是不容许的。Suddenly Nurse Sharp entered, “There' s a man to see you----a shameful person. ”突然夏普护士进来说:“有人要见你——一个不要脸的人。”shameless既可作表语, 亦可用作定语;既可指一种“无耻的”事物或行为, 亦可指某人“恬不知耻”。例如:The notorious Zhao Gao was so shameless that he had the impudence to point at a deer and call it a horse.臭名昭著的赵高恬不知耻, 竟厚着脸皮指鹿为马。That was a shameless betrayal.那是一次无耻的背叛。He was so shameless that he said she loved him.他竟这样恬不知耻地说她爱他。

asleep--asleep adj.睡着的I sat comfortably in a sofa reading a novel; in a few minutes, I fell asleep.我舒舒服服地坐在沙发上读小说, 不一会儿却睡着了。【考点】辨析 asleep和 sleepy:这两个词都有“睡”的意义, 但涵义和用法有所不同。asleep是表语形容词, 意为“睡着”, 强调动作的结果, 它不能用very修饰, 只可用 much, fast, sound等词修饰。有时, 它也作定语, 但只能位于所修饰的词之后。例如:Don't talk loud when others are asleep.别人睡着的时候不要大声讲话。The girl is sound asleep.那女孩睡得很熟。The boy asleep is my brother.那睡着的男孩是我的弟弟。sleepy既可作表语, 亦可作前置定语。用作前者, 意为“困乏, 想睡觉”;用作后者, 意为“贪睡, 好睡”。例如:Tom is a sleepy head.汤姆是个贪睡的人。He looks sleepy; ask him to go to bed.他看起来很困乏, 叫他去睡觉吧。

assault--assault v.袭击, 攻击The mob broke into the shops and assaulted passers- by in its fury.一群暴徒闯进商店疯狂地袭击过路者。【考点】比较 assault和 attack:这两词作动词都有“攻击”的意思。assault“攻击”, 指个人的暴力攻击, 特指肉搏, 又指用言论等攻击他人的名誉、政府的行为等。例如:The rogue assaulted him with intent to kill.这流氓想把他打死。attack“攻击”, 指攻击敌人, 或用言论等攻击他人的名誉、主张等。例如:They attacked the camp by surprise.他们突然袭击敌营。He was attacked by words.他受到言语抨击。

associate--associate n.合作人, 伙伴, 同事, 同行They are intimate friends, as well as business associates.他们既是经商的伙伴, 又是亲密的朋友。【考点】辨析 associate, companion和company:这三个词都有“伙伴”之意。associate“同事”, 指在职业上有同样的利害关系的人。例如:He is not a friend but a business associate. 他不是个朋友, 而是个商业伙伴。companion“同伴”, 指相互之间没有密切的共同点或利害关系的人。例如:He was my former companion in arms.他是我从前的战友。company“同伴”, 是集合名词, 也可作“友谊”解。例如:I came in company with him.我和他一同来。

at once--at once 立刻, 马上If you find anything not to your liking, will you tell me at once?如果你发现有什么不合你意的, 就立刻告诉我好吗?【考点】 once(and) for all 一劳永逸, 一次例如:He's travelled a lot but he's now come back to Britain once and for all.他游历了许多地方, 现在叶落归根又回到了英国。Once and for all, I won't go.最后说一遍, 我不去!

at present--at present 目前, 现在I'm afraid I can't help you just at present----I'm too busy.很抱歉, 我现在帮不了你——实在太忙了。【考点】 for the present 目前, 暂时例如:I can't remember it for the present.我一时记不起来了。That will do for the present.暂且就这样好了。

attendant--attendant n.护理队员;服务员, 值班员;管理员The queen was always surrounded by her attendants.女王身边总是围着侍从。【考点】辨析attendant和attender:attendant作名词用, 属可数名词, 表示:①侍从, 服务员(servant);②管理员, 主要指在公共场所(如影剧院、博物馆等)专门维持秩序的人员;③随从人员, 主要指要人身边的随从人员, 常用复数。例如:The room attendant speaks a little English.房间服务员可以讲点英语。He is a museum attendant.他是博物馆管理人员。The prince and his attendants arrived in the city.王子及其随从人员已到达该城。attender是可数名词, 表示“参加者(a person present)”的意思。主要指参加会议、礼拜或听演讲的人。例如:I don't know how many attenders there are in the hall.我不知道礼堂有多少人参加会议。He is a regular attender at the morning service.他一贯参加早礼拜(是参加早礼拜的人)。

audience--audience n.听众, 读者, 观众Judging from the response of the audience, the performance was a success.从观众的反应来判断, 演出是成功的。【考点】(1)audience指“一批观众、听众、读者”时, 无论人数多少, 都不加s, 只有在指“多批观众、听众、读者”时, 才在词尾加s。(2)audience还有一种特殊的含义, 可表示国家元首或重要人物的正式会见。例如:French Ambassador was received in audience by the Queen.法国大使受到了女王的接见。The queen allowed him an audience of 20 minutes.女王允准接见他20分钟。

avail--avail v.有利于, 有助于 n.(一般用于否定句中)效用, 利益His repeated protestation of his innocence did not avail him.他一再郑重说明他是无罪的, 但是不起作用。【考点】(1)avail oneself of 利用例如:You should avail yourself of every chance to improve your English.你应该利用每一个机会来提高你的英语。(2)of/to no avail表示“无效, 没有效用”, 但 of no avail多用作表语, to no avail多用作状语。例如:We tried and tried, but it was all of no avail.我们努力又努力, 但都没有结果。Every effort was made, but to no avail.已竭尽全力, 但徒劳无益。

avenue--avenue n.林荫道, 大街The avenues of the city were crowded with shoppers. 城里大街上挤满了购物的人群。【考点】avenue作名词, 还有“途径, 手段”之意。例如:Books are avenues to knowledge.书是掌握知识的手段。The best avenue to success is hard work.努力工作是最佳的成功之道。

avoid--avoid v.避免, 回避, 逃避You can avoid danger by being careful and alert all the time.你只要时时小心, 处处警惕, 就能避免危险。【考点】辨析avoid和evade:avoid“避开”, 消极用语。例如:They avoided meeting him.他们避而不见他。evade“避开”, 指用聪明和巧妙的方法避免, 如:evade an attack (躲避攻击); evade doing a duty(逃避职责)。

award--award v.授予, 奖给She was awarded a medal for bravery.她因勇敢而获得奖章。【考点】辨析award和reward:award作动词用, 意为“授予、奖给”、“判给”, 通常指官方或法院根据法律作出决定, 将奖品、金钱等奖给或判给某人。例如:The judge awarded him two hundred dollars as damages.法官判给他200美元作为赔偿费。reward作动词用时, 意为“报答, 酬谢”, 通常指因做了某一具体事情而得到报答或酬谢。例如:The people who find it will be rewarded with 100 dollars. 找到它的人将会得到100美元的酬谢。

awkward--awkward adj.笨拙的, 不灵活的The child is still awkward with his knife and fork.这小孩还不会用刀叉。【考点】比较 awkward和 clumsy:awkward“笨拙的”, 指动作缺乏优美。例如:He is still awkward with chopsticks and food drops on the table each meal.他还是不会用筷子, 每顿饭都要往桌上掉饭粒。clumsy“不雅的”, 指样子、形状缺乏优美。例如:He is clumsy at cricket.他不善于玩板球。

bad--bad adj.不舒服的, 病的;坏的, 恶的She was taken bad during the night.她在夜间忽然生病。【考点】(1)注意bad作形容词, 还有“严重的”、“低劣的”的意思。例如:I've got a bad cold consequently my nose is stuffy and can smell nothing.我得了重感冒, 鼻子不通, 所以什么也闻不到。These shoes are bad in quality.这些鞋子质量低劣。(2)辨析 bad, evil, ill, wicked和 wrong:bad“坏的”, 最普通用语, 可修饰人和物。如:a bad man(坏人);bad weather(坏天气)。evil指道德上的“坏”, 如:evil thought(坏念头)。ill“坏的”、“不健康的”, 常指身体。wicked“恶的”, 比evil意味强, 指恶毒的、犯罪的。wrong“邪恶的”, 指逾越常规的、违法的、邪恶的并且错误的。

bag--bag n. 袋, 包We brought home three bags of groceries.我们带回家3袋子食品。【考点】比较 bag和 sack:bag“袋”, 指布、皮、纸等所制的袋, 如:mail bag(邮袋); handbag (女用手提包)。sack“袋”, 指粗布制的大袋, 用以装大米等, 如:a sack of rice(一袋大米)。

baggage--baggage n.行李A porter carried our baggage to the train.搬运工把我们的行李送上火车。【考点】(1)baggage是美国英语, 相当于英国英语的luggage, 属不可数名词,没有复数形式,等同于 all the bags。(2)注意“收拾行李”应译为pack your bags/suitcases, 而不是pack your baggage。

bake--bake v.烤, 烘, 焙We bake bread and cake in an oven.我们在炉子里烤面包和蛋糕。【考点】辨析 bake, roast和 toast:bake“烘烤”, 指在紧密的器皿中, 或在热的表面上慢慢地烘焙, 不与火直接接触。例如:The cake is baked in a pan.这蛋糕在平底锅上烘着。roast“烤”, 指直接在火上烤, 或在锅中烧, 尤指烧肉, 如:Roasted Beijing Duck(北京烤鸭)。toast“烘”, 指烘成褐色, 尤指烘面包、熏肉等。例如:Toast the bread very dark.把面包烤得焦黄。

bank--bank n.岸, 堤;银行, 库The willow trees on the bank of the river have put forth new leaves.河岸上的柳树已经长出新叶。【考点】辨析 bank, shore和 coast:这三个词都有“岸”的意思, 但侧重点各不相同。bank仅指河岸, 河堤。shore指湖岸, 海岸。coast仅指海岸。例如:His house is on the south bank of the river.他的房子是在河的南岸。The hotel is on the shore of the West Lake.那旅店坐落在西湖湖滨。The ship was wrecked on the Kent coast.这船在肯特海岸触礁。

bare--bare adj.赤裸的, 光秃的;稀少的, 仅有的The children were playing on the beach in bare feet.孩子们光着脚在海滩上嬉戏。【考点】(1)辨析bare, naked和uncovered:bare“裸的”, 局部的裸, 如:bare foot(赤脚); bare arm(赤臂)。naked“裸的”, 指全裸, 如:a naked body(裸体)。uncovered“裸的”, 指没有覆盖的, 如:an uncovered table(没有盖台布的桌子)。(2)bare作动词, 有“露出, 暴露”之意。例如:The dog bared its gums at the stranger.那条狗对生人龀牙咧嘴。

base--base n.基础, 底部;基地, 根据地The base of the statue is made of marble.那塑像的底部是大理石做的。【考点】辨析base和foundation:这两个词都可指具体的、有形的基础, 但base应用的范围广, 可指任何物体的底部、基部;foundation(s)常仅指建筑物深埋于地下的地基。foundation指“地下基础”, 而 base还指“地上基础”。例如:The work men are laying the foundations of a new hospital at the base of the mountain.工人们正躺在一所坐落于山脚下的新建医院的地基上。

basis--basis n.基础, 根据What basis do you have for this judgement?你根据什么下这种判断?【考点】(1)on the basis of 根据, 在……基础上例如:We judge a worker on the basis of his performance.我们根据工作表现来评价一个工人。The interest is calculated on the basis of 360 days to the year.利息按每年360天计算。(2)base“基础”, 多用于比喻, 如学说、名誉、讨论等的基础。例如:His argument rested on a base of fact.他的辩论用事实做根据。

bath--bath n.淋浴, 洗澡Do you want a bath at once or shall I have mine first?你是马上就洗澡还是我先洗?【考点】比较bath和bathe:这两词作动词, 均有“洗澡”之意。bath 只作及物动词, 是指给某人或某动物洗澡。例如:Will you please bath the baby?请给婴儿洗个澡好吗?bathe作不及物动词时,是指因乐趣而愿意浸入水中和处于阳光中, 并非是为了洗净什么。例如:Some boys don't like to bathe regularly.有些男孩不喜欢经常洗澡。bathe作及物动词, 是指为了医疗原因而洗净身体的某个部位。例如:You should bathe a cut to make sure it is quite clean.你要冲洗伤口, 使之相当干净才是。

battle--battle n.战役, 战斗;斗争The general has fought many memorable battles.将军参加过多次难忘的战斗。【考点】(1)battle多用作不及物动词, 跟宾语时常接介词against 或with, 表示“与……进行斗争”。例如:They battled with the wind and the waves.他们与风浪搏斗。(2)辨析 battle, fight和 war:battle“战争”, 指大的、连续数小时或数天的战争。如:the battle of Gettysburg(葛底斯堡之战)。fight“战争”, 指战争的动作。war“战争’, 指全面战争, 包含多次。如:anti-Japanese war(抗日战争)。

bear--bear v. 忍受, 容忍;负担, 负荷I couldn't bear to listen any longer, so I left the room.我不能再听下去了, 所以我离开了房间。【考点】bear表示“忍受, 容忍”, 与stand, endure等同义, 常可互换。作为及物动词, bear后面可以跟名词、代词、动词不定式、动名词和从句等作宾语。

beautiful--beautiful adj.美丽的Her good-looking face cannot show that she is beautiful in mind.她长得漂亮并不能说明她心灵美。【考点】辨析 beautiful, handsome, pretty和 good-looking:这四个词都有“漂亮的”的意思。beautiful常用于形容女性貌美动人。handsome多用来形容男子英俊潇洒, 用于女性表示体态健美端庄。pretty侧重于“娇小”, 因此常用来形容小孩或青年女子。在形容女性时, pretty指女子的活泼可爱, 而beautiful 侧重于妇女的高雅气质。good-looking可以用于男人和女人, 均用来形容一般性的“好看”。例如:Would you describe that woman as handsome or beautiful?你觉得那女子是体态端庄还是貌美动人?Most of the girls are good-looking, some are pretty, but very few are beautiful.这些姑娘大都好看, 其中有些标致可爱, 但称得上美丽动人的寥寥无几。

become--become v.成为, 变得 Some animals in the national parks became so tame that they were a nuisance.国家动物园里的一些动物变得十分驯服, 以至于给参观者带来麻烦。【考点】注意become作动词, 还有“与……相称”、“适宜”之意。例如:Does this new hat become me?这顶新帽子我戴合适吗?Such language does not become a lady like you.这样的语言与你这样一位女士的身份很不相称。

belief--belief n.信仰, 信条;相信, 信念Before Columbus most people entertained the belief that the earth was flat.在哥伦布之前, 大多数人都相信地球是平的。【考点】辨析 belief, credit, faith和trust:belief“信仰”, 指信仰观念、理论、哲学、宗教等。例如:a belief that man are basically good 对人本善的信念credit“信用”, 商业用语, 如:credit card(信用卡)。faith“信仰”, 特指宗教上的信仰。例如:They fought for the faith.他们为信仰而战。trust“信用”, 多用于商业万面, 如:trust company(信托公司)。

believe--believe v.相信, 信仰;认为 He profoundly believed in his future success.他深信自己必将成功。【考点】(1)believe本身可用作及物动词, 表示“相信”, 可以直接跟宾语, 而believe in强调“信任”, 这时believe已是不及物动词,两者意义上也有差别。例如:I believe him.我相信他的话。I believe in him.我信任他。(2)make believe 假装例如:The boys made believe that they were explorers in the African forest.孩子们假装他们是非洲森林中的探险者。She made believe not to hear me.她假装没听见我的话。

belong--belong v.属于, 附属, 隶属China belongs to the Third World.中国属于第三世界。【考点】辨析belong to和belong in:这是两个动介型动词词组, 其后须跟宾语。belong to 后通常接人、团体、组织、部门、地方等名词, 表示“属于(be owned by), 是……的组成部分(be part of), 是……的成员(be a member of)”等意思, 其主语为介词宾语的所属成分。例如:The world belongs to us China's future belongs to us.世界是属于我们的, 中国的前途是属于我们的。That cover belongs to this jar.那个盖子是这个瓶上的。He belongs to the Chinese Communist Party.他是中国共产党党员。belong in意为“应该归入;原住在”, 属“belong +位置个词”结构, in后一般接地方或位置名词, 有时根据所述的地点不同, 可使用不同的介词(如 belong on, belong under,belong among, etc.)。这种结构一般只用于现在时, 常含有表示“应该”的情态意义。例如:This book belongs in the third shelf.这本书该放在第三架上。 This book belongs in the library.这本书该放在图书馆里。This book belongs under the shelf.这本书该放在书架下。

beside--beside prep.在旁边, 在……附近I kept a dictionary beside me when I'm doing crosswords.我做纵横字谜的时候, 手边总有一本词典。【考点】特别注意beside 作介词, 除上面意思外, 还有“与……相 比”之意。例如:Beside your earlier work this piece seems rather disappointing.这件工作同你早先的工作相比有些令人失望。

beyond--beyond prep.超出;迟于;过于, 在(或向)……的那边The scenery of Jiuzhaigou is beautiful beyond description.九寨沟的风景美得无法形容。【考点】注意 beyond description 是固定搭配, 意为“难以形容的”、“无法描述的”。above 作介词用时与介词beyond有时可以替换, 但大多数情况之下却不能。如:beyond my reach(超出我的能力 范围), 不能换为 above my reach;反之, above classes(超阶级的), 也不能改为 beyond classes。

bid--bid v.报价, 投标If we want to win the contract, we must bid the lowest price.我们要是想赢得这项合同, 必须报最低价格。【考点】(1)在现代英语里, bid只用于拍卖场所的“出售价格”。例如:Someone bid ten Yuan for this painting. 有人出10块钱买这幅画。(2)与bid有关的词组:bid for…(投标求……,出价竞买);bid against sb.(与某人争出高价竞买); bid up(抬价);bid off(使……卖出)。

big--big adj.大的, 巨大的;重大的, 重要的The statue of Jefferson was as big as life.杰佛逊塑像和真人一样大。【考点】辨析 big, large和great:big和large 这两个形容词都是用来表示物体体积之大的, 它们 都不带有某种感情色彩。big和large可以互换使用。如:a big (或large)house, car, table等。big这个词更为口语化, 常用于一些口语搭配。如:to talk big(说 大话), too big for your boots(自大)等。big用来形容儿童时, 是指“长大”或“成熟起来”。例如:Don't cry, Mary, you are a big girl now, you know?玛丽, 不要哭了, 你已经是个大姑娘了, 懂吗?great 可用来表示物体体积的大, 但它带有说话人的敬仰、恐惧 或气愤等感情。例如:Look at that great hole in my stocking.瞧我袜子上的这个大洞。(表示厌烦)The great animal crept slowly towards me.那个大动物慢慢朝我爬来。(表示恐惧)

bind--bind v.捆, 绑, 包扎, 束缚Before sweeping the house she bound up her hair in a large hand kerchief.在打扫房屋之前, 她把她的头发用一块大手帕包起来。【考点】辨析 bind, fasten和tie: bind“缚”, 指缠绕周围, 如:to bind up the cut with a bandage(用绷带缠伤口)。fasten“固紧”, 指用一定的方法把某物紧住。例如:The rope is fastened to the post.这绳子固定在柱子上。tie“紧”, 指用丝、绳等捆紧。例如:The horse is tied to a post while the rider is fishing.马拴在柱子上, 主人在钓鱼呢。

blank--blank adj.空白的, 空着的Please write your name in the blank space at the top of the page.请把你的姓名写在这页顶端空白的地方。【考点】blank 作形容词, 还有“失色的, 无表情的”之意。例如:I tried to explain, but he just gave me a blank look.我想要解释, 但是他只是毫无表情地看了我一眼。

bleed--bleed v.出血, 流血The twin brothers bled for their country and died happily.这对孪生兄弟为国流血牺牲, 死而无憾。【考点】 bleed 通常用作不及物动词, 但有时也用作及物动词, 表 示“给……放血”例如:Doctors used to bleed people when they were sick.医生过去常常在人们生病时给他们放血。

blend--blend v.混合, 混杂These houses seem to blend into the surrounding scenery.这些房子和周围的景色浑然一体。【考点】辨析 blend 与 mix:blend 是指同种类东西混合而得到一定种类或一定性质的东西, 强调整体和谐。例如:Blue and yellow blend to make green.蓝色和黄色混合而成绿色。mix 是指保持原来的形状、性能, 意味着乱七八糟地混在一起。例如:Don't mix up these letters with mine.不要把这些信与我的混起来。

bloom--bloom n.花朵;开花In the valley you can see blooms here and there.在山里到处可以看到野花。【考点】辨析 bloom和blossom:bloom与blossom作名词都是指“花”, 但它们所指的却是不同种类的花。bloom是指供欣赏的、美丽而芬芳的花;blossom 则是指 结果实的花, 如:apple blossom(苹果花);peach blossom(桃花)。例如:The roses are in bloom.玫瑰花开了。The apple trees are in blossom.苹果树正在开花。

blue--blue adj.(天)蓝色的;青的His face was blue from the cold.他的脸冻得发紫。【考点】特别注意blue这个表示颜色的形容词, 还有表示心情“伤心的”、“沮丧的”之意。例如:Nancy was blue over her mother's illness.南希因母亲患病而无精打采。He was blue over his dismissal.他因被解雇而情绪低落。与此相似的词还有green, 表示“精神旺盛的”的意思。

blush--blush v.脸红Miss Marsha blushed at the thought of this.一想到这儿玛莎就脸红了。blush v.脸红【考点】辨析 blush和flush:这两词都有“脸红”的意思, 又都能用作动词和可数名词, 但它们的修辞手段和使用场合是不同的。blush 一般指因内心的害羞、惭愧、困窘等而引起的脸红, 有时可 以译成“羞愧”。作不及物动词用时, 其后常跟介词at,with, for等;作名词用时, 属可数名词。例如:She blushed when we criticized he for incorrect attitude to ward labour.当我们批评她对待劳动的不正确态度时, 她脸红了。He blushed with(for)shame.他因惭愧而脸红。She blushed at the mention of her lover's name.一提到她情人的名字, 她的脸就羞得通红。I blush to think of such conduct.一想到这种行为, 我就感到羞愧(脸红)。We notice a sudden blush of shame on her cheeks.我们看到, 她因害臊而突然脸红。flush 一般指由于兴奋、喜悦、愤怒、醉酒、发烧等而引起的脸红。它既可作不及物动词, 也可作及物动词用, 用作前者时, 常同介 词with连用;用作后者时, 多以被动语态的过去分词形式出现。 用作名词时, 除表示“脸红”外, 还有“红润的脸色”或“太阳的红 光”等引申意义。例如:He flushed with anger.他气得满脸通红。His face was flushed with triumph. 他因胜利而喜形于色。The child was flushed with fever.那个小孩发烧烧得脸都红了。A flush of excitement crept over his face.由于兴奋, 他脸红了。She is proud of the healthy flush of her child's face.她为她小孩健康的红润脸色而高兴。In the first flush of dawn we climbed up the mountain.在曙光初照时, 我们爬上了山顶。

board--board n.全体委员, 委员会, 部门;板, 木板;船舷He has joined the board of a new company.他加入了一家新公司的董事会。board n.全体委员, 委员会, 部门;板, 木板;船舷【考点】(1)注意 board这个词的两种意思:①作名词时, 有“伙食”的意思。例如:I pay£ 10 a week for board and lodging.我每周付10英镑的食宿费。②作动词时, 有“上船(车, 飞机)”之意, 相当于 to go on board。例如:Passengers should board the train now.旅客现在应该上火车了。Flight BA 193 for Paris is now boarding.乘飞往巴黎的BA 193航班的旅客现在可以登机。(2)on board 作副词, 意思是“在(向)船上, 飞机上, 火车上”, 相 当于 aboard。例如:They got on board the train.他们上了火车。Have the passengers gone on board yet?旅客已经上船(飞机)了吗?

book--book v.预订, 订(票、房间等)If you want to go to the Continent for your holiday, you ought to book up now.如果你想到欧洲大陆去度假, 你现在就该预定机票和房间了。【考点】(1)辨析 book, order和subscribe:这三个动词都表示“预 订”, 其区别是动宾搭配不同。book 是指订票、座、房间等。例如:I have booked a seat on a plane for Shanghai.我已订了一张飞往上海的飞机票。order是指订货物、菜、衣服等。例如:He ordered himself three suits.他为自己订了3套衣服。subscribe 是指订阅书刊、报纸、杂志等。例如:He subscribed for(to)some magazines.他订了一些杂志。(2)book in(at)为……订房间例如:I have booked you in at the Hilton Hotel.我为你在希尔顿旅馆订了房间。注意:在旅馆名前还应该用介词at。

box--box n.箱(子), 盒(子);包厢He ate a whole box of candy.她吃了一整盒的糖果。box n.箱(子), 盒(子);包厢【考点】(1)辨析 box, tin和can:这三个词都可指“盒子”、“罐子”。box 是指用木头、金属或硬纸板做成的长方形带盖的盒子。如:a box of chocolates(一盒巧克力糖);a box of matches(一盒火柴)。tin 是指专门贮存水果、蔬菜或肉、鱼的盒子或箱子。例如:May I have a tin of sardines? 给我来一听沙丁鱼好吗?can 是指装液体等用的金属罐。现在在美国和英国, can和tin 可互换, 都用来指装肉、鱼、水果及其他食品等用的白铁罐, 如:a can of peaches(一罐头桃子)。(2)辨析 box和 boxing:box作名词, 还有“一记耳光”之意, 如:gvie sb. a box on the ear boxing作名词, 则指“拳击运动”或“拳击动作”。例如:I went to a boxing-match last night and saw some good boxing.昨晚我去看了一场拳击比赛,看到了一些好拳术。

branch--branch n.(树)枝, 分枝;分部, 分店;(学科)分科, 部门;支流, 支 脉He climbed up the tree and hid among the branches.他爬上树, 藏在树枝后面。【考点】辨析 branch, bough, spray和 twig:这几个词都有“枝”的 意思。branch“枝”, 一般用语。例如:The branches of the trees are waving to and fro in the gentle wind.树枝在微风中前后摆动。bough“大枝”, 指大而粗的枝。例如:The tree has no bough.这棵树无大枝。spray“小枝”, 尤指草木的小的、细的、优美的枝条。twig“细枝”, 指草木的嫩枝。

brand--brand n.商标, 标记, 牌子Do you like this brand of coffee?你喜欢这种牌子的咖啡吗?【考点】辨析 brand 和 mark:这两个词都表示“商标、(商品的)牌子”,但brand通常仅用于指肥皂、牙膏、黄油等小的或不贵重的事物,而汽车、冰箱、计算机等的“商标”、“牌子”,一般用mark。例如:What brand of toothpaste/soap do you use?你用的是什么牌子的牙膏(肥皂)?What mark of computer did you buy?你买了什么牌子的计算机?

breast--breast n.胸脯, 乳房He always has a white handkerchief in the breast pocket of his jacket.他常在上衣口袋上放一块白手帕。【考点】 辨析 breast, chest 和 bosom:这三个词都有“胸”的意思。breast“胸”, 指胸部的前面, 特指乳房。例如:They used supersonic waves for the detection of breast can cer.我们用超声波检查乳腺癌。chest“胸部”, 指肋骨所包围的部分。例如:Leaned upon his broad chest I heard the beating of his heart.贴在他宽广的胸部, 我能听到他的心跳声。bosom 胸, 与 breast 同义, 是文学用语。例如:She is my bosom friend.她是我的心腹朋友。

breed--breed v.(使)繁殖, 生殖 Some animals will not breed when kept in cages.有些动物关在笼子里就不会繁殖。【考点】 注意 breed 的以下几种意思:①动词, “产生, 引起”, 相当于 be the cause of。例如:Lack of achievement in work sometimes breeds pessimism.工作中没有成就会引起悲观主义。②动词, “教育, 抚养, 饲养”, 相当于 train, educate, bring up 等。例如:Northern countries breed people who can live in cold weather.北方国家培养人们在寒冷气候中生存。③名词, “品种, 种类”。例如:They also cultivate fine breeds of silkworms.他们还培养了良种蚕。

broad--broad adj.宽的, 广阔的;广大的, 广泛的;宽宏的, 豁达的The broad masses of the people in the world want friendship with China.世界上广大的民众想要与中国建立友谊。【考点】 辨析 broad 和 wide:这两个词都表示“宽的”。就人的身 体而言, 指洞穴式的部位, 如眼睛、嘴巴大时, 用wide;形客人的脸、肩、胸、背等的表面宽或大时, 用broad。从广义上讲, broad 指物体的整个表面宽广;wide主要用于表示口径、缝隙、空间从一侧到另一侧的宽度。例如:There are broad pastures in the mountains.山里有宽广的牧场。The car's too wide to go into the garage.汽车太宽了,进不去车库。

build--build v.造, 建筑, 建设, 建立In this way they helped us build our confidence in victory.他们就这样帮助我们树立胜利的信心。【考点】(1)辨析 build, build up和 set up:build 作及物动词, 是指具体的修筑、制作, 强调的是从无到有的过程。而build up 则作及物和不及物动词均可, 是表示“积聚”、“增多”、“建立”、“阻塞”之意, 常与表示力量、军队、健康、 交通等的名词连用, 强调的是在原有基础上扩大或发展。例如:He has built up a good reputation for this goods.他的商品建立了良好的声誉。set up 原意是将东西树立起来, 如:set up a monument(竖起一 块纪念碑)等, 现在常用的意义是“建立”, 但指“建立”时, 主要 用于组织、机构、公司、学校等。试比较:build a school 盖一所学校set up a school 建立一所学校

calculate--calculate v.计算, 推算Scientists have calculated that the world's population will double by the end of the century.科学家已推算出世界人口在本世纪末将要增加一倍。【考点】(1)辨析 calculate, number 和 count:这三个词都有“数”、“计算”之意。calculate 指“需要复杂手续的计算”。例如:I calculated on receiving at least two hundred dollars for my work.我的工作预计至少得用200美元。number“数”, 一般的用语。例如:The ship's company numbers 500, all told.这船船员共计500人。count“数”, 指“一个一个地数”。例如:I count on the fingers. 我用手指计算。(2)calculate 作动词时, 还有“计划, 打算”之意。例如:This advertisement is calculated to attract the attention of housewives.这个广告以引起家庭主妇们的注意为目标。The assembly hall is calculated to hold 1000 people.这个新会堂计划容纳1000人。

calm--calm adj.镇静的, 沉着的We'll have to discuss this in a calmer mood.我们必须冷静些后再讨论。【考点】 注意 calm 作形容词时, 还有“(天气, 海洋等)静的, 平静 的”之意。例如:After the storm, it was calm.暴风雨过后, 天气平静了。The high wind passed and the sea was calm again.劲风过后,大海恢复了平静。

canvas--canvas n.帆布This parcel should be sewn up in canvas.这包裹应该用帆布缝起来。【考点】注意 canvas作名词, 还有“油画布”、“油画”之意。例如:She requires a large canvas to put on.她需要一块大画布作画。The art gallery purchased several beautiful canvases from the artist.美术馆向那位画家购买了好几幅美丽的油画。

capable--capable adj.有本领的, 有能力的;能……的Napoleon was one of the most capable generals in history. 拿破仑是历史上最有才干的将军之一。【考点】辨析 capable, competent, able和 qualified:这四个词都可指“有能力的”的意思。capable一方面指出乎意料的潜能, 对一般的要求能应付自如的 才能, 另一方面这个词还有经过训练后而具备某项工作能力的意思。例如:He is a capable of anything bad.他什么样的坏事都干得出来。He is a capable man.他是一位有才能的人。Capable lawyers should be well-schooled in the company law.能干的律师应是在公司法方面受过良好训练的。competent 用于指某人有能力去完成某项特定的任务。根据含义,这词所完成的是可以被客现地评价为满意的或不满意的任务。例如:No competent tax accountant could possibly have made such errors in making out your return.没有一个胜任的税务会计师在计算你的盈利时会出这样的错误。able 一方面这个词的中性的意义可以表示“行得通”或“做得 到”的意思, 另一方面它还指“有才能的”, 比capable表达的“才 能”更强。例如:Most children are able to walk before they able to talk.多数孩子在会说话之前先会走路。He found himself able to converse without embarrassment.他觉得他自己能自然谈话。qualified 强调具有要求的技能, 一般用于要求受过起码教育和 训练的职业和行当。 例如:He's well qualified for the job.他做这工作很合格。These tests have to be carried out by a qualified doctor.一个合格的医生必须通过这些考试。

capacity--capacity n.容量, 容积;能量, 能力;接受力The storage vessel has a capacity of 10000 litres.这个贮存罐能装10000升。【考点】 capacity 表示“能力”时, 一般不指体力, 而多用于才智、 道德等方面, 尤指接受能力、颖悟性、敏感性等。例如:This book is within the capacity of younger readers.这本书年轻的读者也能看懂。

capture--capture v.捕获, 俘获Our army captured 500 of the enemy.我军俘获敌军500人。【考点】(1)capture 作动词时, 还有“夺得”、“攻占”之意。例如:Tom was so clever that he captures most of the prizes at school.汤姆聪明极了, 学校里大部分奖品都被他夺得了。They captured this place two day ago.他们两天前占领了此地。(2)注意 capture和captivate 这两个词虽都是从 capere (抓)演 变而来, 但captivate 作“俘获”讲的用法较为罕见, 它主要是指 对一个人的“吸引力”或“魅力”, 即有“使着迷”的意思, 相当于 “attract”, 多用于形容爱情。例如:I was captivated by her charming manners and delightful accent.我被她那迷人的举止和动人的语调迷住了。

case--case n.箱, 盒, 容器;情况, 事实Is it the case that the company's sales have dropped?公司销售额下降一事属实吗?【考点】 常见case作“病例”、“案例”讲。例如:We get an infectious case, what's the best thing to do?要是我们有一个传染病例的话, 最好的办法是什么?The jury who tried the case found the prisoner guilty.审理这一案件的法官发现犯人是有罪的。注意上句中 try the case作“审案”解。

cast--cast v.投, 扔, 掷, 抛The fishermen cast their nets into the sea.渔民把网撒到海里。【考点】(1)辨析 cast和 throw:cast“投”, 常用作比喻意义, 表示无意识的行为, 此外现在多用throw代替, 除 to cast a ballot(投票), to cast off a boat(解缆), to cast aside(放到一边)等习惯用法外, 常用于比喻。 例如:He could not help casting his eyes toward their window.他忍不住朝窗户看。throw“抛, 掷, 投”, 含有用力的意味。例如:Leonard shut the book and threw it aside.伦纳德合上书把它扔到了一边。(2)注意cast作名词解时, 有“演员表”之意。例如:The film has a superior cast.那部影片演员的阵容很强。

casual--casual adj.偶然的, 碰巧的The two old friends had a casual meeting.两个老朋友偶然相遇了。【考点】(1)casual作形容词时, 还有“临时的, 非正式的”的意思。例如:A casual laborer is one who has no steady job.临时工是一个没有固定工作的人。She's wearing a casual dress.她穿了件便装。(2)辨析casual和causal:这两个形容词一般用作前置定语。在 拼法上, 二者字母相同, 只是先后顺序有一个字母之差, 但读音 和含义却大不相同。casual表示“偶然的”、“临时的”、“漫不经心的”或“随随便便的” 的意思。例如:They are in the casual employment of this factory.他们在这家工厂当临时工。I have a casual interest in golf.我对打高尔夫球只有一时的兴趣。He cast me a casual glance.他漫不经心地看了我一眼。 She's a very casual person.她是一个很随便的人。causal表示“原因的”或“表明原因的”的意思。例如:“Because”are causal conjunctions.“because”和“since”是表示原因的连接词。

catch--catch v.抓住, 逮住;赶上Mother caught me stealing from the shop and scolded me severely.我从商店偷东西被妈妈抓住了, 她狠狠地责骂了我。【考点】 catch作动词时, 还有两种含义需特别注意:①作“感染”解, 相当于 become infected with。如:catch a disease(患病);catch a cold(患感冒;伤风)。②作“理解, 听到”解。例如:Being a green hand in this field, he is not very quick at catching on.由于在这一领域中是新手, 他不能很快领会。

cause--cause n.原因, 理由;事业, 事件Smoking is one of the causes of heart disease.吸烟是引起心脏病的一种病因。【考点】 辨析 cause for和 cause of:这是由名词 cause加两个不同 的介词构成的短语介词, 其含义和用法有别。cause for表示“……的理由”的意思。其中cause为不可数名 词, 指说明观点或行动的“理由”。介词for后可接名词或动名词。例如:You have no cause for complaining.你没有理由抱怨。There is no cause for alarm.没有理由担心害怕。He claimed to have just cause for regarding the matter in a serious light.他自称有正当的理由把这问题看得严重。cause of表示“……的原因”的意思。其中cause多作不可数名 词用, 在现代英语中, 间或作可数名词用, 主要指导致某种结果 的原因, 介词of后常接名词。它还可表示“……的事业”的意思。这时, 其中的cause为可数名词。例如:We shall do our best to find out the cause of the incident.我们将尽力找出发生事故的原因。What were the causes of World War Ⅱ?导致第二次世界大战的原因是什么? They are fighting in the cause of justice.他们正在为正义事业而斗争。

cautious--cautious adj.小心的, 谨慎的If I had been less cautious I might have been more wise.如果我不那么谨小慎微, 也许我会更明智些。【考点】 辨析 cautious, wary和chary:这三个词都有“谨慎的’的 意思。cautious通常暗示因为恐惧而来的远见, 如:cautious of strangers(提防陌生人)wary强调的是在潜在危险前的疑心与警惕, 如:be wary of giving offence(提防冒犯他人)。chary指讲话、行动很谨慎, 强调“不情愿”。如:a teacher who is chary of giving praise(不轻易称赞学生的教师)。

celebrate--celebrate v.庆祝We had a party to celebrate Mother's sliver wedding.我们举行了晚会庆祝母亲的银婚纪念。【考点】 辨析celebrate 和 congratulate:celebrate“庆祝”, 指举行仪式、庆典等的庆祝, 一般是对事而言。例如:We celebrated our mother's birthday by having a party.我们开晚会庆祝母亲的生日。congratulate“祝贺”, 一般是对人而言。例如:I congratulate you and wish you happiness.我祝贺你并愿你幸福。

cellar--cellar n.地窖, 地下室 Under our house is a cellar in which the coal was kept.我们的房子下面是一个装煤的地窖。【考点】 比较 cellar和 basement:这两个词都有“地下室”之意。cellar是用来贮藏食物、燃料等用的地下室。例如:Get some potatoes from the cellar, please.从地窖里拿些土豆来。basement是指建筑物的最下面部分(一部分或全部在地面之下), 用来作厨房、食堂等。例如:A boy was ever locked in the basement in the old times.旧社会这地下室里曾锁过一个小男孩。

certain--certain adj.(of)一定的, 确信的, 可靠的;某一, 某些You must be certain of your facts collected in your investigation.你必须肯定你在调查中搜集的事实可靠。【考点】(1)certain 表示“某一, 某些”时, 往往含有说话人对某件 事物知而不详或知而不说, 当与人的姓连用时, 则表示说话人只知其姓, 其余一概不知。例如:A certain Smith came to see you this morning.一个叫史密斯的人上午来看过你。(2)辨析 certain 和 sure:certain“确实的, 的确的”, 含有无疑的或十分确信的意味。例如:I am certain that the bridge is safe.我确信桥是安全的。sure“确定的, 确信的”, 对于所信赖的事实用sure, 对于已确知 为事实的情况用certain。例如:He was sure that the king must have seen the letter.他敢肯定国王一定已看到了信。

charge--charge v.控告, 指控;索(价);充电 He was charged with negligence of duty.他被指控失职。【考点】(1)辨析charge和 accuse:charge“控告”, 用以指大的或小的, 公的或私的过失、犯罪等。例如:I charged him with taking my book.我控告他偷我的书。accuse“谴责, 非难”, 较charge的意味强, 而且是较为正式的用语。例如:His master accused him of having neglected his work.他的主人斥责他疏忽了工作。注意 charge sb. with sth. 表示“控告某人犯某罪”, 而accuse sb. of sth. 也表示“控告某人犯某罪”。(2)比较 in charge of与in the charge of:需要指出, in charge of 与 in the charge of在含义上是有所区别的。试比较:The neighbour was in charge of the boy.邻居在照料孩子。The boy was left in the charge of the neighbour.把孩子留给邻居照料。上面句子中, in charge of是表示“管理”、“照管”, 而 in the charge of是表示“受……管理(照管)”。

chart--chart n.图, 图表The chart showed the decline in the company's sales during the year.图表显示出, 公司在这一年度的销售量下降了。【考点】 辨析chart与map:chart是指水手所用、标示着海岸线、海底深度、礁石、灯塔等位 置的航海或航空图。如:a nautical chart(航海地图);a flight chart(航空图)。map是指大陆地图或天体图。

charter--charter n.宪章I know nothing about the charter of the United Nations.我对联合国宪章一无所知。【考点】 特别强调, charter 作动词时, 有“包租(车、船、飞机)”之 意。例如:Our school chartered three buses for the trip.我们学校为那次旅行包租了3辆公共汽车。The travel agency chartered two jet planes for the trip.这家旅行社为那次旅行包租了两架喷气式飞机。

cheap--cheap adj.便宜的Cauliflowers are very cheap at the moment.菜花现在很便宜。【考点】 cheap作形容词时, 有“低劣的, 不值钱的”的意思, 如:cheap material(低劣的材料)例如:The coat may be expensive but it looks cheap.这件外套可能贵, 但看上去很蹩脚。I hate this kind of cheap humour.我不喜欢这种庸俗低级的笑话。

cheat--cheat v.欺骗;作弊The poor child was cheated out of his inheritance by a dishonest lawyer.这个可怜的孩子被一个狡猾的律师骗去了遗产。【考点】 辨析cheat和deceive:cheat“欺骗”, 主要是指在营利的买卖中欺骗人。例如:They cheated him out of his money.他们骗取了他的金钱。deceive“欺骗”, 普通用语。 例如:She had never really deceived him as to her thoughts of him.在对待他的看法上, 她从没真的骗过他。

check--check v.检查, 核对He must check his work more carefully----it's full of mistakes.他必须更加仔细地检查他的作业——作业中有许多错误。【考点】(1)check作动词, 还有两种意思需特别注意:①制止, 控制例如:Perhaps there is nothing now which can check this ad vance.或许没有什么可以阻止这种进步了。②(凭票)托运或寄存例如:She checked her trunks to Guangzhou.她把箱子托运到广州。(2)与check有关的词组:check in办理登记手续例如:The record shows that he checked in at the hotel on Monday, and checked out Tuesday night.记录表明他星期一登记住进旅店, 星期二晚上结账离去。check out 结账后离开例如:He checked out five minutes ago.他5分钟前结过账走了。check up/(up)on 校对, 检查, 检验例如:I'm going to check up/on the time of the train.我将去核实一下火车开出的时间。

cheerful--cheerful adj.愉快的, 高兴的This feeling of optimism was encouraged by the sight of Jennie's cheerful face. 看到詹妮快乐的样子, 就有了乐观的情绪。【考点】 辨析cheerful和pleasant:cheerful“愉快的”, 指心情或精神状态不易受外界事情的影响, 有时也指人和其他事物。例如:He is cheerful in spite of his illness.他虽然生病却很高兴。pleasant“愉快的”, 指使人心满意足的状态。例如:She heard a pleasant voice as she walked into the room.她进屋时听到令人愉快的嗓音。

cherish--cherish v.珍爱, 怀有They have cherished the child as one of their own.他们把这个孩子当自己的亲生子女来抚养。【考点】 辨析cherish和appreciate:这两个词都有“欣赏”的含义。cherish暗示对某人或某物有一种特别的爱与关怀。例如:I cherish for you the most lively feelings of affection and gratitude.我对你怀有最强烈的爱和感激之情。appreciate意为“欣赏”, 建立在对某物有足够的理解基础上的 喜爱。例如:That's just because you can't appreciate music.那是因为你没有音乐欣赏力。

childish--childish adj.孩子气的, 幼稚的The masses are the real heroes, while ourselves are often childish and ignorant.群众是真正的英雄, 而我们自己则往往是幼稚无知的。【考点】 辨析childish和childlike: childish作形容词, 是指“带有孩子特征的”, 若用来形容成年 人, 则是指“愚蠢的”、“傻气的”或“(行为)放荡的”。例如, childish laughter这个短语若是形容儿童, 是指“天真的笑”;若 是形容成年人, 则是指“傻里傻气的笑”或“放荡的笑”。childlike 是形容儿童那种稚气的、天真纯洁的品德。例如:Although he was now grown up, he retained a childlike faith in the goodness of his fellow-men.虽然他长大了, 但对他的伙伴们仍保持着一种淳朴的信任。

chip--chip n.切屑, 碎片;(土豆等的)薄片When you sharpen a pencil, you make chips.削铅笔时会削下很多木屑。【考点】 还应特别注意chip作名词时, 还有“集成电路板”的意思。例如:Chips are widely used in the electronic industry.集成电路板在电子工业中得到广泛使用。

choice--choice n.选择(机会), 抉择;供选择的种类, 选择项What influenced you when you made your choice?在你做出选择时, 受了什么影响?【考点】(1)choice常用在have no choice but to do sth.(别无选择只有……)的结构中。例如:I have no choice but to do as he tells me.除了按照他告诉我的去做, 我没有选择余地。(2)choice 还有两种词义应特别注意:①名词, “入选者, 精华”。例如:The choice of the enemy troops has been completed wiped out. 敌人的精锐部队已被全歼。②形客词, “精选的, 上等的, 优等的”。例如:The shop was selling choice apples so I bought a pound.这家商店正在出售精选的苹果,我买了一磅。

choose--choose v.选择, 挑选She had to choose between giving up her job or hiring a nanny.她得在放弃工作和雇用保姆两者间做一选择。【考点】 choose作动词时, 还当“甘愿”讲。例如:Tom chose to stay at home rather than go fishing.汤姆甘愿呆在家里而不愿去钓鱼。

chorus--chorus n.合唱;合唱队The chorus was very good today.今天的合唱很好。【考点】(1)in chorus表示“一齐、一致、共同”, 相当于in con cert。例如:The union members shouted their assent in chorus.会员们齐声喊叫表示同意。They answered my question in chorus.他们同时回答我的问题。(2)chorus作动词, 有“齐口同声地说, 随声附和”的意思。例如:The papers all chorused praises for the president.报纸同声歌颂总统。The crowd chorused their approval of the decision.群众对该决定齐声表示赞同。

circle--circle n.圆, 圆周;周期, 循环He drew a circle by running a pencil around the lid of the jar.他用铅笔绕着瓶盖画了一个圆圈。 【考点】 circle 作名词, 还当“界”讲, 常用复数形式。如:literary circles(文学界); political circles(政界); cultural circles(文艺界); academic circles(学术界)等。

circumstance--circumstance n.(常pl.)情况, 形势, 环境;经济情况We can't judge what he did until we know the circumstances.等我们了解情况以后, 我们才能对他的行为做出判断。【考点】 辨析circumstance, surroundings, setting和environ ment:这四个词均作“环境”讲。circumstance指某事或动作发生时的情况, 一般用复数。常与under或in连用, 表示“在……情况下”。例如:Under no circumstances should we do anything that will benefit ourselves, but at the same time harm the interests of others.在任何情况下我们都不能做有利于自己,但同时不利于他人的事。surroundings指“周围事物”、“环境”,一定用复数。例如:He seemed to be out of tone with surroundings.他似乎与周围环境不协调。setting常指“背景, 环境”。例如:Rome is the setting of the story.故事以罗马为背景。environment则表示绕着某一特定的人或物并对其产生某种影响的“环境”。例如:Children need a happy home environment.孩子需要一个愉快的家庭环境。

cite--cite v.引用, 引证, 举例The minister cited the latest crime figures as proof of the need for more police.部长援引最新犯罪数据以证明有必要增添警察。【考点】 辨析 cite和quote:cite“引用”, 指引用一个作家或书中的一段, 作为证据。引证的 时候, 并不一定要用相同的字眼。例如:He cited a case to support his contention.他引用了一个例子来支持自己的论点。quote“引用”, 指把他人所说的话, 在引号中重述一遍, 所用字词 与原来的完全相同。例如:The passage is quoted in this book.这本书引用了这篇文章。

civil--civil adj.有礼貌的, 文明的;公民的;民用的;国内的The courteous boy was civil to everybody.这个谦恭的男孩对每个人都很有礼貌。【考点】 辨析 civil, polite, courteous和gallant:这四个词都有 “有礼貌的”、“讲礼貌的”的含义。civil指尽量避免表现出粗鲁。polite 指语言、举止等比较优美, 但缺乏诚意。courteous客气的, 指考虑得很周到, 举止显得很有尊严, 如售货 员对顾客。gallant殷勤的, 常指对女人的过分的礼貌。

claim--claim v.声称, 主张He claims that he is rich, but I don't believe him.他自称很有钱, 但我不相信他。【考点】 特别注意claim的一词多义现象:①claim动词或名词, “索赔”。 例如:She claimed£500 from him for injuries suffered.她向他索取500英镑的赔偿费。The insurance company agreed to pay the claim.保险公司同意支付赔偿费。②claim名词, “权利, 要求权, 所有权”。例如:Did you get the claim you asked for?你得到要求的权利了吗?They establish his claim to the property of his deceased uncle.他们确定他有权继承已故叔父的遗产。

clash--clash n.碰撞声They heard the clash of swords.他们听到刀的碰撞声。【考点】 辨析 clash和 crash:clash和crash都是表示金属猛烈撞击的声音, 但它们之间又有所不同。 clash是指撞击声, 而crash是指撞坏或撞碎的声音。例如:The overture ended with a clash of cymbals.这章音乐序曲在响亮的击钹声中结束。I heard the crash of breaking glass suddenly.突然我听到打碎玻璃杯的声音。

classic--classic adj.第一流的, 不朽的, 古典的Long before his death, Tennyson's poetry had become classic.早在丁尼生去世以前, 他的诗便成为最优秀的作品。【考点】 辨析 classic 和 classical:classic主要意思是“第一流的”、“最上等的”, 即“of the first or highest class”。在文学艺术上它与romantic(浪漫主义)相对。例如:This is a really classic French champagne. 这确实是上等的法国香槟酒。Most of his later works have an obvious classic style.他后期的大部分作品具有明显的古典派风格。classical则是指古希腊、罗马的文学、艺术, 意为“古典(文学、艺 术)的”。在文学艺术上与 popular music(流行音乐)相对。例如:Now only a few people study the classical music of India.现在只有很少人研究印度的古典音乐了。

clear--clear adj.清晰的, 明白的;畅通的, 无阻的;晴朗的There is a clear view of the sea from that hill.从那座山上可以一览无遗地看见大海。【考点】 辨析clear, apparent, distinct, evident, manifest和obvious:clear“清楚的”, 常用来形容目光、说话、陈述、文体、证据、真理、智慧等。例如:It is as clear as noonday.这是一清二楚的。apparent“明显的”, 指容易被看见或认识的东西。例如:With a very apparent and hearty gratitude in his face, he nodded to me in greeting.他向我点头打招呼, 脸上带着明显的由衷感激的表情。distinct“清楚的”, 指物体的各个部分非常清晰时用这个词, 常 被用在比喻的意义上。例如:The king demanded of the Empress Queen a distinct explanation of her intentions.国王要求王后对她的意图做出清楚的解释。evident“明白的”, 多用于推理上明白的和抽象的事,例如指事 实、证据、错误、成功、倾向等。例如:It was evident that his plans had miscarried. 很明显他的计划失败了。manifest“明显的”, 含义比evident更强。例如:Her ability is manifest, but she is not attractive.她的能力虽然显而易见, 但她缺乏魅力。obvious“一目了然的”, 含有无需证明的或自明的意味。例如:It was obvious that if John remained where he was he must soon be surrounded.很显然, 要是约翰原地不动的话, 他马上就会被包围了。

clever--clever adj.聪明的, 伶俐的, 机敏的, 灵巧的It was really clever of her to find her way here.她能找到这儿来真聪明。【考点】 辨析 clever at和clever with:这两个词组均用在连系动 词be的后面。clever at的意思是“擅长于(good at)某种活动或研究课题等”, 其后通常接活动、学科等名词或动名词。例如:She is clever at painting.她擅长于绘画。He is clever at his lessons.他功课学得很好。clever with是“善于使用(good with)”的意思, 其后须跟工具、 器械或人体器官等名词。例如:He is clever with a spade.他善于使用铁铲。She is clever with her fingers.她的手很灵巧。

climate--climate n.气候How do you like the climate of Japan?你觉得日本的气候怎么样? 【考点】 climate 作名词时, 还有“风气, 社会思潮”的意思。例如:In a climate of political unrest, a dictator can often seize power.在动荡的政治气候下, 独裁者常常能夺取政权。I wouldn't have liked the moral climate of Britain before the First World War.我不会喜欢英国在第一次世界大战前的道德风气。

climb--climb v.攀登, 爬Do you think you can climb that tree?你看你能爬上那棵树吗?【考点】 辨析climb和rise:climb“攀登”, 指攀登树木或山等。例如:He climbed up a mountain for a view.他登山眺望。rise“上升”, 指连续地上升, 如太阳升起等。例如:The sun rises in the East.太阳从东方升起。

close--close adj.(to)近的, 密切的, 接近的Apparently he wanted to be close to the people who enjoyed priv ileges.很明显他想接近那些享受特权的人们。【考点】 close作形容词时, 应注意该词的一词多义的现象:①作“秘密的, 关闭着的, 不公开的”讲。例如:She is always been very close about her past life.她对自己的过去一向守口如瓶。②有“严密的, 紧密的”的意思。 例如:Keep a close watch on the children.仔细照看着孩子。

clothes--clothes n.衣服It's time we were able to lay off these heavy winter clothes.是把这些冬天穿的厚衣服收起来的时候了。【考点】 辨析 clothes, clothing和 cloth:clothes是指人穿的各种“衣服”, 用作复数形式, 其前不能用数词修饰, 但可用his, your, my或the, these, those等词修饰。作主语时, 谓语动词要用复数。但 a suit of clothes, a pair of clothes作主语时, 谓语动词须用单数。例如:Do I have to change my clothes for the meeting?我去参加会议要换衣服吗?The little boy went to church in his best clothes.那个小男孩穿着他最好的衣服上教堂。clothing 是集合名词, 为衣服、服装的总称, 用于单数形式。它除了包括衣裤之外, 还包括帽、袜、手套之类。相当于汉语中的“衣着”或“衣物”。例如:This shop sells articles of men's clothing.这个铺子卖男人的服装。cloth一般用作不可数名词, 通常指“棉布”、“毛织品”, 其前也 不能加不定冠词;cloth亦可用作可数名词(复数形式是cloths), 指“某一特定用途的布”。例如:It will take three yards of cloth to make a suit for you.你做一套衣服得要3码布。Please cut me enough of this cloth to make a shirt.请给我剪块足够做一件衬衫的布。There were many pretty table-cloths for sale at the bazaar.市场上出售许多漂亮的桌布。 The woman cleaned the floor with an old cloth.那妇女用一块旧布擦地板。

coach--coach n.(铁路)客车, 长途汽车, 大客车 The bus company is putting new coaches on all its routes.汽车公司正把新长途旅游汽车投入其线路运行。【考点】(1)辨析 car, coach和bus:这三个词都表示“汽车”。car主要是指私人用的小汽车;coach或 motor coach是指往返 于城镇之间的能乘坐15~40名旅客的“长途汽车”;car不能代替coach;bus指市内“公共汽车”。coach和car还有“车箱”之意。但coaches则是指载旅客用的火车车箱, 而car是指火车的专用车箱, 如:dining-car(火车上的)餐车, sleeping-car(火车上的)卧铺车。(2)注意coach的一词多义现象:①名词, “辅导员, 教练, 私人教师”。例如:He is our soccer coach.他是我们的足球教练。The professor agreed to be the boy's maths coach.教授同意当这男孩子的数学辅导教师。②动词, “教练, 辅导, 指导”。例如:He is being coached by a famous violinist.他目前正受教于一位著名的小提琴家。The teacher is coaching his students for the examination.教师正在辅导学生准备考试。

coat--coat n.外套, 上衣He put on his fur coat and went out.他穿着他的皮外套出去了。【考点】(1)coat 的一词多义现象:① 名词, “皮毛, 表皮, 涂层”。例如:The dog has a thick coat of hair.这条狗长着一身厚毛。You must put another coat of paint on this door.你得在这扇门上另涂一层漆。②动词, “涂上, 盖上, 包上”。例如:He coated his chairs with white paint.他在椅子上涂了一层白漆。(2)coat 常用于 be coated with(涂上一层……)的结构中。例如:The car was thickly coated with dust.汽车上积了厚厚一层灰。

cock--cock n.公鸡, 雄鸡 They fight cocks to make a living.他们靠斗鸡谋生。【考点】 特别注意该词作名词时, 还当“龙头, 开关”讲。例如:Turn the cock to increase the flow of oil.旋大龙头增加油的流量。

code--code n.代码, 代号, 密码The message was written in code.这份情报是用密码写的。【考点】 code作名词, 还有“法典、法规、规则”的意思:例如:The punishments for robbery and murder are prescribed in the penal code.对抢劫和凶杀的惩罚在刑法中有明文规定。The club's code of dress requires men to wear ties at dinner.该俱乐部有关衣着的规定要求男子戴着领带参加宴会。

coin--coin n.硬币, 货币He slipped a coin into the beggsr's hand.他把一枚硬币塞到乞丐手里。【考点】 应特别注意coin作动词时, 有“铸造(硬币)”、“创造(新 词)”的意思。例如:These pennies were coined at the mint in London.这些便士是伦敦造币厂铸造的。The word“blurb was coined by G.Burgess.blurb一词是G·伯吉斯所创。

collect--collect v.收集, 搜集He is collecting(up)the first-hand information that he needs in his research work.他正在收集他在研究工作中所需的第一手资料。【考点】 注意该动词还有两个不同的意思。①动词, 作“领取, 接走”讲。例如:I'll come round to collect my child one of these days.这几日内我来接回我的孩子。②动词, 作“收(账、税等)”讲。例如:The Inland Revenue is responsible for collecting income tax.税务局负责征收所得税。

college--college n.学院, 高等专科学校, 大学The Depression forced him to leave college to work in his father's drugstore.大萧条迫使他中途辍学, 到他父亲的杂货店去干活。【考点】 college 指大学内设的学院, 或分科大学, 学科较为单一的 学院, 在日常用语中泛指大学。 例如:About 40 percent of college age Japanese attend college.日本大学学龄青年中有40%的人上大学。

color--color n.颜色, 彩色The garden was a mass of color.花园中五彩缤纷。【考点】 注意该词的一词多义现象:①名词, 作“颜料”讲。例如:The artist painted in water color.画家用水彩作画。②名词, 作“肤色”讲。例如:All the people are created equal without regarding to race or color.不管种族或肤色, 所有的人生来平等。

column--column n.列;圆柱, 柱状物A column of soldiers marched down the street.一纵队士兵从街上走过。【考点】 column 作名词, 还可以作“(报刊中的)专栏”讲。例如:I always read her column in the local paper.我经常在当地报纸上看到她的专栏文章。

commence--commence v.开始Shall we commence the ceremony?开始举行仪式好吗?【考点】 commence 用作及物动词或不及物动词均可。作为及物 动词时后面可跟名词、动词不定式或动名词。例如:After grace had been said, we commenced eating.我们做过感恩祷告后就开始吃饭。She commences to cry.她开始哭起来。

comment--comment v.& n.注释, 评论Joan commented that she thought it was time for a new car.琼发表意见说, 她认为是买新汽车的时候了。【考点】 comment 用作及物动词或不及物动词均可, 用作及物动 词时后面跟that从句, 用作不及物动词时先接介词on或up, 再跟宾语。例如:The King refused to comment on the election results.国王拒绝评论选举的结果。

commission--commission n.委员会;委任, 委托(书)The government has appointed a commission to investigate the subject in all its aspects.政府已指定一个委员会调查这个问题。【考点】 特别注意commission作名词, 还有“佣金, 手续费”的意 思。例如:You get a 10% commission on everything you sell.你可从售出的每件货物中得到10%的佣金。

company--company n.公司, 商号Having left the oil company, he joined a telephone company.离开石油公司后, 他加入了一家电话公司。【考点】(1)注意 company的其他几个意思:①作名词, 有“陪伴, 同伴”的意思。例如:He always smiles to her, giving her innumerable indications that he enjoys her company.他总是朝她微笑, 无数次暗示他喜欢和她在一起。 ②作名词, 有“宾客, 客人”的意思。例如:He's not well enough to receive a good deal of company.他的健康尚未完全恢复, 不能接见那么多客人。③作名词, 有“连(队), (一)群, (一)队, (一)伙”的意思。例如:The company took the hill after an all-night battle, but it was costly price.这个连经过一夜的战斗占领了山头, 却付出了高昂的代价。She told the assembled company what had happened.她把发生的事告诉了聚会的人。(2)keep company with 与……人交往, 与……结伴例如:Never keep company with dishonest persons.绝不要与不诚实的人交往。He has kept company with her for more than two years.他与她已有两年多的交往了。

compare--compare v.比较, 相比, 对比;比作If you compare their work, you'll find hers is much better.要是把她俩的工作比较一下, 就会发现她的好得多。【考点】(1)compare 后面接介词with或to均可,有时没有什么差别,但compare with通常意思是研究一个东西与另一个东西的相似或不同的方面,而compare to通常指某个东西与另一个东西相似。(2)辨析 compare和contrast:compare“把……跟……比较”, 多指比较相同之处。例如:Let's compare the translation with the original.让我们把译文和原文比较一下。contrast“对比, 对照”, 多指对比不同之处。例如:This cold weather contrasts with last week's heat. 这冷天气同上星期的热天气对比明显。

compatible--compatible adj.能和睦相处的, 合得来的The couple separated because they were not compatible.这对夫妻因不合而分居。【考点】 注意compatible 作形容词, 有“兼容的”的意思。例如:This printer is compatible with most microcomputers.这台打印机是与大多数微型电子计算机兼容的。

complaint--complaint n.疾病;抱怨Jane has a serious complaint, so we've called in the doctor.简病得很重, 因此我们已经请医生了。complaint n.疾病;抱怨【考点】(1)比较 complaint 和 illness:complaint“疾病”, 指“慢性病”的通俗用语。例如:No one could see what his complaint was.没人知道他得的是什么病。illness 指“不问病期长短、病势轻重的一切病症”。例如:In case of serious illness, the doctor is called in.如果得了重病, 要请医生来看。(2)complaint 作名词时, 还作“申诉”讲。例如:She lodged a complaint about the noise.她就噪音问题提出申诉。

complex--complex adj.复杂的;合成的, 综合的There is a complex network of roads connecting Glasgow and Edinburgh.格拉斯哥与爱丁堡之间有个错综复杂的道路网。【考点】 比较 complex 和 complicated:complex 指问题或事情内在关系复杂, 必须经过仔细研究和了解才能解决、掌握和运用。如:the complex mechanism of a watch(手表的复杂结构)。complicated 作形容词, 意思为“错综复杂的, 麻烦的”, 是指问题或事情本身错综复杂, 难以应付。例如:This is the most complicated case I have ever handled.这是我所处理的最为复杂的案子。

comply--comply v.照做, 遵照, 应允Certain of their conditions are not easily complied with.他们提出的某些条件难以照办。【考点】 comply是不及物动词, 跟宾语时必须先接介词 with。例如:People who refuse to comply with the law will be punished.拒绝遵守法律的人将受到惩罚。I cannot comply with your terms of payment.我不能答应你的支付条件。

conceive--conceive v.设想, 想象, 构思;认为Scientists first conceived the idea of the atomic bomb in the 1930's.科学家早在20世纪30年代就有了对原子弹的设想。【考点】(1)conceive 常用于 conceive of(想象, 想到)的词组中,后面可跟名词或动名词。例如:It's difficult to conceive of travelling to the moon.到月球旅行是很难想象的。(2)conceive 作动词, 还有“怀胎, 怀有”之意。例如:The banu was conceived in March and born in December.这孩子三月份怀下了, 十二月份出生。

concentrate--concentrate v.集中, 专心;浓缩I tried to concentrate my attention on my chemical researches. 我设法使自己的注意力集中在化学研究上。【考点】 辨析 concentrate 和 focus:concentrate“集中”, 使集中于一点, 宾语可以是具体的或抽象的 东西。例如:The enemy concentrated its attack on the right flank.敌人把进攻集中于右侧。I am concentrating on both speaking and writing.我已集中精力于读写两方面。focus“集中, 焦点”, 本义是把光线投到一个点。例如:The spotlights are focused on the stage.灯光集中到台上。focus 的引伸义与concentrate 同义, 但宾语一般不是具体的东西。例如:We must focus our attention on the main problems.我们要把注意力集中在主要问题上。

concern--concern v.关心, 挂念When she finished working she concerned herself with looking after the old people in her area.她工作完以后, 关心照顾她所在地区内的老人。【考点】 concern 常和反身代词连用, 后面跟由about 或with引出的介词短语, 但在更多情况下concern用其过去分词作表语, 后面跟 about, with, for或 over 引出的介词短语。例如:We are concerned for/about her safety.我们大家都担心她的安全。The novelist is not concerned with other people's attitude to his work.这小说家不在乎人们对他的作品的态度。

concert--concert n.音乐会, 演奏会The orchestra gave a concert that lasted two hours.这个管弦乐队举行了一场两个小时的音乐会。【考点】(1)表示“去听音乐会”应该说 go to the concert。(2)concert 表示“一齐, 一致”, 常用在 in concert(互相配合地, 齐 声地)的词组中。例如:Various governments decided to act in concert over this matter.各国政府决定对这件事采取一致行动。

conclude--conclude v.断定, 下结论;结束, 终止From his appearance we may safely conclude that he is a heavy smoker.根据他的外貌, 我们可以有把握地断定他烟抽得很厉害。【考点】 应特别注意conclude作动词, 还有“缔结”、“议定”之意。如:conclude a treaty with(和……缔结条约);conclude business after viewing samples(看样成交)。例如:Britain concluded a trade agreement with China.英国和中国签署了贸易协定。

conclusion--conclusion n.结论, 推论;结束, 终止It was very difficult to reach definite conclusion because the situation was complex.因为情况复杂, 很难得出明确的结论。【考点】 与conclusion 搭配的动词主要有come to, reach, arrive at, draw 等, 都表示“得出结论”。例如:I have come to the conclusion that it would be unwise to ac cept his proposal.我已得出结论, 认为接受他的建议是不明智的。

condemn--condemn v.谴责, 指责;判刑, 宣告有罪The court condemned her to spend 30 years in prison.法庭判她 30 年监禁。【考点】 辨析condemn和sentence:condemn“宣告有罪”, 是最普遍的用语。例如:I shall be tried by judges, but I am condemned beforehand,and I must die.我将受到法官的审判, 但我预先已被宣告有罪, 我是死定了。sentence“判决”, 法律上的用语, 指对判决有罪的人宣告其罪。例如:The court assembled, found him guilty, and sentenced him to death.法院开庭, 认为他有罪, 并判处他死刑。

condition--condition n.环境, 形势, 条件;状况, 状态He was brought up in exceptionally favourable linguistic conditions.他是在特别有利的语言环境中长大的。【考点】(1)on condition that 在……条件下例如:I'll come on condition that John is invited, too.如果约翰也被邀请, 我就来。(2)注意 condition 作动词用时的含义:①有重要影响, 决定(have an important effect on[sb./sth.]; de termine)。例如:Environment conditions an animal's development.环境能影响动物的成长。②使(某事物)达到适当的或合乎要求的状况(以供使用), 如:leather conditioned by a special process(经特殊加工的皮革)。③使适应;使习惯于(环境) 例如:He soon conditioned the boys to the cold weather.他很快就使男孩们适应了寒冷的气候。

conductive--conductive adj.导热的;导电的;能传导的Silver is a highly conductive metal.银是导电性很好的金属。【考点】 辨别形近词 conducive 和 conductive:这两个词均作形容 词, 在古代英语中, conductive曾一度用作 conducive, 但在现代 英语中, 二者不可换用。conducive意为“有助于, 有益于”, 相当 于helpful, 常与介词to连用, 用作表语或后置定语。例如:Exercise is conducive to health.运动有益于健康。conductive意为“导电的”, 常用作表语或前置定语。例如:Copper wires are highly conductive.铜线的导电性很好。

confidence--confidence n.信心, 自信;信任The patient has lost all confidence in his physician.那个病人已对他的医生完全失去了信心。【考点】 confidence作名词, 还作“秘密, 机密”讲, 即相当于 secret which is told to sb。例如:The two girls sat in a corner exchanging confidences.两个女孩子坐在角落里说着悄悄话。I'm telling you this in confidence.我是私下把这件事告诉你的。

confident--confident adj.确信的, 自信的 He felt at ease and confident in the future.他心情舒坦并对未来抱有信心。【考点】 (1) confident 后面常跟介词 in 或 of, 表示“对……充满信心”。例如:We are confident of our success.我们确信能获得成功。(2)辨析 confidant 和 confident:这两个词仅一个字母之差, 其含 义和用法却完全不同。confidant 是名词, 来自法语, 意为“知己”或“心腹之交”。例如:He is my confidant.他是我的心腹之交。confident 是形容词, 意为“相信的, 自信的”, 其后常接介词 of短 语或 that 引出的从句, 也可单独用作前置定语。例如:She was quite confident that her confidant would keep her secret.她深信她的心腹之交会替她保守秘密。The politician spoke in a confident voice.那位政客以充满信心的声音讲话。

consequence--consequence n.结果, 后果, 影响;重要性Such a mistake would lead to disastrous consequence.这样的失误将会导致灾难性的后果。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:in consequence 因此, 结果例如:She was found guilty, and lost her job in consequence.她被判有罪, 因而失去了工作。in consequence of 由于……的缘故例如:In consequence of your bad behavior, I'm forced to dismiss you.由于你行为不检点, 我只得解雇你。

considerable--considerable adj.值得考虑的It is a considerable question.这是个值得考虑的问题。【考点】 注意该词的一词多义现象, considerable 形客人时是“重 要的”;形容物时是“相当大的或相当多的”。例如:The mayor is a considerable citizen.市长是个重要的市民。His last book was a considerable success.他的最后一本书获得巨大的成功。

considerate--considerate adj.考虑周到的, 体谅的It was considerate of you not to play the piano while I was having a sleep.我睡觉时你不弹琴, 考虑得真周到。【考点】 considerate 后面通常用介词of, 不用to, 有时也用to wards。例如:It is considerate of you to help me.你来帮我, 真是考虑周到。The boss is considerate towards her employees.这位老板能体谅她那些雇员。

consist--consist v.(in)存在于;(of)由……组成The strength of this man's cause consists in the justice of it.这个人所述理由的力量就在于它的公正性。【考点】 比较 consist of, consist in 和 consist with:consist of 后面常指整体的各部分, 主语与宾语是整体与部分的 关系, 常译作“由……组成(be made up of)”或“包括, 包含(include)”。例如:Water consists of oxygen and hydrogen. 水由氧和氢组成。The apartment consists of two rooms and a kitchen.那套房间包括两间住房和一间厨房。consist in 意为“在于, 存在于”, 其后一般跟抽象名词或动名词。例如:All arts consist in the imitation and study of nature.一切艺术存在于对自然的模仿和研究。consist with表示“与……一致”的意思, 相当于accord with。例如:Theory should consist with practice.理论应与实践相一致。

constitution--constitution n.构成, 构造, 组成(方式)The constitution of a primitive society is not necessarily simple.原始社会的结构不一定简单。【考点】 注意constitution 作名词时的一词多义现象:①宪法例如:A constitution lays do the manner and means by which a state is governed.宪法规定治理国家的方式方法。②体格, 体质例如:He has an iron constitution.他有一副钢筋铁骨。It doesn't suit my constitution.这不适合我的体质。

consult--consult v.与……商量, 请教The Prime Minister consulted with his Cabinet on a variety of matters.首相就许多问题与其内阁成员进行了协商。【考点】(1)辨析consult with与consult: consult 作及物动词时, 有“请教”、“磋商”的意思,常指向医生、律师等专家征求意见。例如:He consulted a doctor about his health.他找大夫进行健康咨询。consult with 是“和……商量”, 常指同自己同等地位的人商谈事 务, 其中consult 作不及物动词。例如:I consulted with him on that matter.我找他商量那件事。(2)consult 作动词时, 还有“查阅”之意。例如:Consult your dictionary when you are unsure of your spelling.当你不敢肯定拼写时, 就查阅一下词典。注意:consult和look sth. up 均作“查阅”讲, 但consult后接“书 籍”、“地图”等, 而look sth. up是指在词典或参考书中查阅(词 或资料)。例如:If you want to know how a word is used, look the word up in the Advanced Learner's Dictionary.你想了解某词的用法, 查《高阶词典》。

contain--contain v.包含, 容纳, 装有The machines hall contains a variety of machine tools.机器厅里有各种各样的机床。【考点】 注意contain 作动词时的一词多义现象:①作“等于, 相等于”讲。例如:A gallon contains eight pints.1加仑等于8品脱。②作“控制, 抑制(自己的感情等)”讲。例如:At the sight of this cruelty, he could hardly contain his anger. 看到这样残酷的行为, 他简直抑制不住心头的怒火。Hearing the news, she could hardly contain herself for joy.听到这消息她高兴得不得了。

contempt--contempt n.轻蔑, 藐视I feel nothing but contempt for people who treat children so cruel ly.我鄙视如此虐待孩子的人。【考点】 contempt 后一般用介词 for, 但在短语 in contempt of中, of不能改成for。例如:He refused to answer in contempt of the rules of the court.他藐视法庭规则, 拒绝做出回答。

contemptible--contemptible adj.可鄙的;下贱的That was a contemptible trick to play on a friend!用这种手法耍弄朋友真卑鄙!【考点】 比较contemptible和contemptuous:contemptible 和contemptuous 是同源于 contempt(鄙视)的形容 词, 但contemptible 含被动的意义, 意为“可轻蔑的”;而contemptuous 含主观的意义, 意为“(对他人)轻蔑的”。例如:We're contemptuous of something or somebody contemptible.我们鄙视所有可卑的人或事。His contemptuous attitude towards us is contemptible.他对我们的那种傲慢的态度, 实在可卑。

context--context n.上下文, 文章前后关系 Can you guess the meaning of the word from the context?你能联系上下文猜出这个词的意思吗?【考点】 out of context 脱离上下文, 断章取义例如:He was furious that the papers had quoted his remarks completely out of context.他很恼怒, 那些论文引用他的话时纯属断章取义。The reporter quoted me out of context.记者对我的话断章取义。

continual--continual adj.不断的, 连续的, 频繁的He has continual arguments with his father.他屡次跟他父亲争论。【考点】 比较continual 和continuous:continual是“断而复始的, 屡次的”的意思, 往往指经过短暂的间 歇或停顿之后, 又继续进行下去, 因而有断断续续的意味, 多用于形容令人厌烦的事情。例如:The continual ringing of the telephone annoyed me.时停时响的电话铃声使我感到厌烦。The noise of hammering was continual.锤声不断传来。continuous 往往指在一段时间内接连不断地进行的动作, 含有不中断、不停的意味, 因此常译为“不停的”、“持续的”, 它还可用 于比喻, 属于中性词。例如:The history of mankind is one of continuous development from the realm of necessity to the realm of freedom.人类的历史, 就是一个不断地从必然王国向自由王国发展的历史。The continuous stretch of wheat fields looks like the surface of the sea rippling.那连续不断的麦田看上去就像那碧波荡漾的海洋。

contrary--contrary adj.相反的, 矛盾的, 对抗的Contrary to all advice, he started to climb the mountain.他不顾大家的劝告, 开始爬那座大山。【考点】 注意 contrary to, to the contrary和on the contrary的不同用法:contrary to 是形容词短语, 其后常接名词或what从句, 作表语、状语或后置定语用, 表示“与……相反”、“违反”的意思。例如:Contrary to expectation, she was not present at the confer ence.出乎意料, 她当时竟没有出席会议。What he said is contrary to what he did.他所说的与所做的刚好相反。The boy was swimming in a direction contrary to the cur rent.男孩正朝逆流方向游去。to the contrary 是介词短语, 意为“相反的(地), 用作后置定语, 有时也用作状语, 一般放在句末。例如:I shall continue to lieve it until I have proof to the con trary.没有得到相反的证据之前, 我将继续相信这件事。If you don't hear something to the contrary, I'll meet you at seven o'clock outside the cinema.如果没有相反的情况, 我7点钟在电影院门前等你。on the contrary 也是介词短语, 起连接副词的作用, 用于两个分句之间, 常用逗号分隔, 其意为“相反, 反之”, 用来加强否定一个事实并肯定其反面。例如:He did not say he liked it. On the contrary, he was very much against it.他并没有说他喜欢这件事。相反, 他是很反对的。 I have never said that I was opposed to the Sunday opening of theatre; on the contrary, I have for long advocated it.我从来没有说过, 我反对星期天开放戏院。相反, 我很久以来就主张星期天演戏。

contrast--contrast v.对照, 对比, 差异His Indian robes contrasted oddly with his fluent English.他那印度长袍与他流利的英语形成奇特的对照。【考点】 注意contrast 还可作名词用, 通常用在下面的短语中:in contrast with/to与……成反比例如:In contrast to his brother, he was always considerate in his treatment of others.和他兄弟相反, 他总是能体谅他人。His white hair was in sharp contrast with his dark skin.他的白头发与黑皮肤形成鲜明的对照。

contribute--contribute v.贡献, 捐助, 捐献The Song dynasty contributed three great inventions to world civilization.宋朝的三大发明对世界文明做出了贡献。【考点】 contribute 作动词, 还有“投稿”之意。例如:He contributed widely to publications in many countries.他向许多国家的出版社广泛投稿。I make most of my money by writing books, but I do con tribute to magazines sometimes.我多半靠写书赚钱, 但有时也给杂志投稿。

control--control n.控制, 支配He has no control over his emotions.他控制不住自己的感情。 【考点】(1)control 后面常接介词over或of, 表示“对……的控制”。例如:She managed to keep control of her car on the ice.她在冰上开车时, 尽力控制住了汽车。The manager exercises control over the whole firm.这位经理控制着整个公司。(2)out of control 失去控制例如:The car went out of control and crashed.汽车失去控制, 撞坏了。The aeroplane got out of control and fell in the sea.飞机失去控制, 掉进了大海。(3)under control 被控制住例如:It took the teacher months to bring his class under control.老师花了好几个月才把他班上的学生管住。The people began to break the windows, but the police soon had the situation under control.人们开始砸碎窗户, 但警察很快将局势控制住了。

controversial--controversial adj.引起争论的, 有争议的He has always been a controversial figure.他一直是一个有争议的人物。【考点】 这是一个在阅读中常考的词汇, 应该掌握该词的确切含义。例如:Abortion is a highly controversial matter.流产是极具争议性的事情。Many of the new taxes are controversial.许多新税收都是有争议的。

convenience--convenience n.便利, 方便;便利设施These modern conveniences in the office save them a lot of time.办公室的这些现代化便利设备节省了他们许多时间。【考点】 convenience 前常用不同的介词表示不同的意思。at one's convenience 表示“在万便的时候”;for convenience 表示“为了方便”;to one's convenience 表示“对某人方便”。例如:I keep my reference books near my desk for convenience.我把我的参考书放在我的写字桌旁以求方便。Please do the work at your own convenience.这件工作如何做,悉听尊便。

convention--convention n.大会, 会议;惯例, 常规, 习俗The convention voted on a new constitution.大会投票表决新章程。【考点】 (1)convention与 assembly都有“集会”的意思, 但 convention常用于党派团体的代表大会。如:an出annual convention (年会);a political convention(政治集会)。(2)convention还作“公约”、“协定”讲。例如:The countries all agreed to sign the convention.各国都同意签署这个公约。注意:在作“协定”、“公约”讲时, convention与pact, treaty意思 相近, 但侧重点各不相同。convention常指两国之间的正式的、重要的协定;pact指对立国家或集团间达成的协定;treaty指两国之间签定的协定, 尤指战后由双方代表签字的协定。

cool--cool adj.凉的, 凉爽的The coffee is not cool enough to仙drink.咖啡还不够凉, 不能喝。【考点】 cool还用来形容人‘冷静的”、“沉着的”、“冷淡的”。例如:Keep a cool head when things go wrong.情况不妙时保持冷静。Charles seemed very cool towards me劝today, I wonder if I've offended him.查尔斯今天似乎对我很冷淡。我不知道是否是我得罪了他。

cope--cope v.对付, 应付, 妥善处理;竞争There was too much work for our computer to cope with.我们的计算机要干的工作太多, 简直应接不暇。【考点】 区别cope with和deal with:两者都有“对付”之意, 但cope with“对付”的主要对象是困难或困境, 且有“成功地对付”之意。而 deal with“对付”的对象往往是人, 且有“难以对付”之意。例如:She knew how to cope with this situation.她懂得如何对付这种局面。He is a man hard to士deal with.他是一个难以对付的家伙。

correct--correct v.改正, 纠正, 矫正Correct the mistakes in your composition.把作文中的错误改正过来。【考点】 比较correct和revise:correct“改正”, 是指使事物变成正确和真实的。例如:Please correct any misspellings in this letter.请把信中的拼写错误都改正过来。revise“纠正”, 特指书本、校样、原稿等的修改。例如:They are revising a dictionary.他们正在校订一本字典。

correspond--correspond v.相等;一致;相当于His actions do not correspond with(to)his words.他言行不相符。【考点】 注意correspond to 和correspond with 的用法:这是两个 动介型短语动词, 其后可接名词、代词或 what 从句, 表示“与……相符合(一致)”的意义, 两者一般可换用。例如:The results of this experiment do not correspond with(to) what we have expected.这次试验的结果与我们所期望的不相符合。correspond to 还可表示“相当于, 类似于”的意思, 多用于两个在表面上或名称上不同, 而实际上具有共同作用的事物。例如:The wing of a bird corresponds to the arm of a man.鸟的翅膀类似于人的手臂。American Congress corresponds to British Parliament.美国的国会相当于英国的议会。correspond with 则还可用于人与人之间的书信往来, 表示“与……保持通讯联系”的意思。例如:We have been corresponding with each other for years.多年来, 我们一直保持着通讯联系。

cost--cost n.成本, 费用, 代价She built the house without regard to cost.她盖这所房子根本不在乎花多少钱。【考点】 注意两个与该词有关的短语:at all costs 不惜任何代价, 无论如何例如:We must avoid war, at all costs.我们必须不惜任何代价避免战争。We are determined to obtain our rights at all costs.我们决心不惜一切代价来获取我们的权利。at the cost of以……为代价例如:Fame, at the cost of character, is dearly bought.以牺牲人格而猎取名誉, 代价太高昂了。We must cherish experience acquired at the cost of our own blood.我们必须珍惜用我们自己的鲜血获得的经验。

count--count v.数, 计算;看作, 认为Please count up all the days that he has been absent.请把他缺席的天数加起来。【考点】 注意 count…as, count as和count for的区别:count…as和count as中的as均为介词, 意为“作为”。前者中的count为及物动词, 须跟宾语;后者中的count是不及物动词, 和as一起组成及物动词词组。count…as是“把……看作”的意思, 相当于regard…as。例如:They no longer counted him as a regular member.他们不再把他看作正式会员。count as 含有比喻的意味, 有被动的含义, 是“算作, 算得上”的意思。例如:For the purpose of our classification, anyone over eighteen years of age counts as an adult.为了我们分类方便起见, 任何超过18岁的人即算作成年人。count for是“有……价值(be worth)”和“有……重要性(be of importance)”的意思, 介词for后一般接不定代词(如much, lit tle, a great deal, a lot, anything, nothing, ect.)作宾语。例如:In those circles wealth counted for a good deal, education for very little.在那些人的心目中, 财富关系重大, 教育则无足轻重。Such a man counts for nothing.这种人没什么用处。

country--country n.国家;农村, 乡下He looked as if he were from the country.他看上去好像来自农村。【考点】 比较country和countryside:这两个词都表示“农村”的意思。countryside 常用来泛指一切乡村地域或居民。例如:The countryside is the most beautiful at this time.此时农村景色最美。The whole countryside has risen against the invaders.全体农村居民起来反抗侵略者。country 作“乡村”解时, 侧重指区别于城市或城镇的乡间、乡下,即没有被建筑物覆盖的土地。例如:I prefer living in the country to being in the town.我宁愿住在乡下而不愿住在城市。They are leaving the country and moving into the town.他们离开乡间搬到城里去了。

couple--couple n.夫妻;(一)对, (一)双The minister joined together over 8, 000 couples.这位牧师曾为8, 000对夫妻主持婚礼。【考点】 注意couple作动词时, 意为“连接”、“结合”。例如:The train will be ready to leave when all the carriages have been coupled.所有的车厢连接好后, 火车就准备出站了。The dining car was coupled to the last coach.餐车已挂在末节车厢上了。

court--court v. 献殷勤, (向女人)求爱;求婚The young man courts the young lady by bringing her flowers everyday.那个青年通过每天给那女子送花而向她求爱。【考点】 比较 court, woo和 date:这三个词均可作“求爱”讲。court作“求爱”解, 是常用词。例如:She's courting though she's only seventeen.她虽然只有17岁, 但却已在谈恋爱了。woo作“求爱”解, 主语总是男性, 且该词不如court用得普遍。例如:The boy wooed the girl for three years.这个男孩向这个女孩求爱3年了。date作“求爱”、“约会”解, 主语可为男性或女性, 是非正式用法。例如:They've been dating each other for a long time.他俩谈恋爱已经很久了。

courtesy--courtesy n. 谦恭, 有礼;有礼貌的举止They didn't even have the courtesy to apologize.他们也不道个歉, 真没有礼貌。【考点】 by courtesy of 蒙……的好意(或准许), 蒙……提供(或赠送)例如:These pictures are reproduced by courtesy of the General Electric Company.这些照片是得到通用电气公司的许可而翻印的。This programme comes by courtesy of a local company.本节目由本地一家公司提供。

cover--cover v. 覆盖, 遮蔽, 包括, 涉及He laughed to cover his nervousness.他哈哈大笑以遮掩紧张的心情。【考点】 比较 covered by与 covered with的不同用法:这两个短语都同be动词连用, 表示“被……覆盖”的意思, 其后均接物体名词。当所接的物体名词为不是人为的自然物(如 water,ice, snow, etc.)时, 两者可以通用。只是covered by中的covered可看作是完全分词, by短语的宾语指物的自然作用力, 为直接行为者, 不受他力的影响;而covered with中的covered则可看作是形容词, 表示一种状态, with短语中的宾语指物。例如:The pathway across the field was covered by (with) the snow.穿过田野的小径被雪覆盖了。Thousands of years ago, the land was covered by (with)trees.几千年前, 这片土地被森林覆盖着。当所接的物体名词是人为的一个个、一件件具体的较小的覆盖物(如 cloth, clothes, book, etc.)时, 通常要用 covered with, 因为这时往往还有“人”作为其直接行为者。例如:The body was covered with a white sheet.尸体上盖着白被单。The table was covered (by him) with a table cloth.桌子上盖着一块台布。

craft--craft n. 飞机, 飞船The astronauts piloted their craft down to the lunar surface.宇航员驾驶宇宙飞船在月球表面降落。【考点】 craft表示“飞机、飞船”时, 单复数不变。类似的词还有spacecraft, spaceship, 它们的单复数也是同形的。

crash--crash v. 碰撞, 坠落, 摔坏She crashed the plates angrily down on the table.她生气地将盘子摔到桌子上。【考点】 (1)crash作“碰撞”解, 后接介词into。例如:The lorry crashed into a pole.卡车撞在电线杆上。(2)crash作“打碎”、“破碎”解, 与break和smash有同一意思, 但三者中惟有crash强调有响声的碎裂。(3)crash作名词, 除有“破碎声”、“撞击声”、“(飞机的)坠毁”之意外, 还有“(计划的)失政”、“破产”之意。例如:The stock market crash of 1929 ruined many people.1929年的股市暴跌, 使许多人破产。(4)crash作形容词, 意为“应急的”、“速成的”, 如:crash courses in French(法语速成班); crash program(应急计划)。

crawl--crawl v. 爬行, 蠕动The wounded soldier tried to crawl back to the trench.那个伤兵试着爬回战壕。【考点】 辨析 crawl, creep, climb和scramble:crawl“蠕动”、“爬行”、“缓慢地移动”, 表示动物(没有脚或不用脚地)蠕动, 慢慢爬行;或表示车辆缓慢地行进。其特点是所表示的动作“缓慢”。例如:The caterpillar(毛毛虫) crawled across the rock.毛毛虫爬到石块那边。Our train crawled over the damaged bridge.我们的列车缓慢地驶过受损的桥梁。creep“爬行”、“蹑手蹑脚的行动”,表示身体贴着地面爬行, (人或动物)蹑手蹑脚不发出声响地走动。这个词强调的是动作宁静没有响声。例如:A tiger creeps toward its prey.一只老虎向着它要进食的东西爬行。The snake crept along the garden wall.蛇沿着院子墙壁爬行。climb“攀登”, 特指攀登树木或山等, 表示上升的动作。例如:The car slowly climb the hill.汽车缓缓地爬上山坡。If I had a rope, I could have climbed it.我要是有绳子的话就爬上去了。scramble“攀爬”、“急急忙忙地行动”、“争抢”, 其基本含义是“急急忙忙地攀爬”, 动作是“急匆匆的”。例如:He scrambled up the steep bank.他急急忙忙爬上陡峭的河岸。

credible--credible adj. 可信的;可靠的Is there a credible alternative to the nuclear deterrent?是否有可以取代核威慑力量的可靠办法?【考点】 比较 credible和 creditable:credible的意思是“可信的”, 常用来形容人物、言语、历史、解释、故事等的可信度。其反义词为incredible。例如:It is hardly credible that she can speak English.她能讲英语, 令人难以相信。creditable的意思是“值得称赞的”、“给人带来声望和荣誉的”。常用来形容人的事业、成就、行为、工作等, 其反义词为discreditable。例如:His action in rescuing the drowning child was most creditable.他抢救溺水孩子的行为是很值得称赞的。

credit--credit v. 信任Do you really credit the government's statement?你真相信政府的声明吗?【考点】(1)credit 用作动词, 表示“信任、相信”时, 主要用于疑问句及否定句中。例如:I can't barely credit what she said.我简直不相信她的话。(2)注意几个与credit有关的短语:do credit to… 为……增光例如:This work does credit to you.这项工作为你增光。give credit to 相信……例如:I give credit to his report.我相信他的报告。on credit 赊账, 挂账例如:We do not sell on credit.本店售货概不赊账。

crew--crew n. 全体船员, 全体乘务员The crew is waiting for instructions from the ship's owner.全体船员正在等待着船主的指示。【考点】 crew是总称, 通常用作单数, 其谓语动词也用单数形式。例如:The train crew runs a railway train.列车乘务员管理一列火车。

criterion--criterion n. 标准, 准则Success in making money is not always a good criterion of success in life.能挣钱并不一定是衡量人生成功的可靠标准。【考点】(1)criterion的复数形式为criteria或criterions。(2)criterion 与 standard(标准)的区别:standard指由官方权威制定的确定的规则、原则或衡量尺度;criterion泛指用于评判某事物的任何尺度,不一定指确定的规则或原则。

crop--crop n. 一批, 大量;作物, 庄稼;一熟收成There is a large crop of mistakes in your essay.你的文章中有许多错误。【考点】 比较 crop和 harvest:crop“收获”、“收获物”, 普通用语, 指谷物及水果等的收获而言。harvest“收获”、“收获物”, 比喻或诗中用语, 比crop较为高贵。此外, harvest仅指谷物的收获, crop兼指果物的收获。如:wheat-harvest或wheat-crop均可, 但对potato只能说potatocrop。

cross--cross adj. 交叉的, 横穿的 v. 越过, 穿越;(使)交叉The accident took place at a cross-roads.那次事故发生在一个十字路口。【考点】 cross作形容词, 还有“易怒的”、“发怒的”的意思。例如:The old lady was really cross when the boy's ball broke the window.那男孩的球打破了老太太的窗户, 她真的生气了。(2)cross out 删去, 取消例如:I crossed out the mistakes in my sentence and wrote it again.我把句子里的错划掉, 重写了一遍。Cross out that last sentence and put this in instead.把那最后一句划掉, 换上这一句。

crowd--crowd n. 人群;一群, 一伙A crowd had already collected outside the embassy gates.使馆大门外已经聚集了一群人。【考点】 辨析 crowd, throng和mob:crowd“人群”, 特指偶尔聚集起来而无秩序的人群, 各人的身体常互相碰着。例如:It is difficult to pick one's way through the crowd.要穿过人群是很难的。throng“人群”, 指拥挤在一处而难以前进的人群, 很少用在物上。例如:No such a throng had ever before been seen in the building.从前在这栋楼里从没见过这么一大群人。mob“人群”, 常指情绪激昂、毫无秩序的人群, 有时可能酿成暴力行动的人群。例如:The police faced a mob throwing bricks and petrol bombs.警察面对一群投掷砖块和汽油弹的暴徒。

crown--crown v. 为……加冕British Kings are crowned in Westminster Abbey.英国国王是在威斯敏斯特教堂加冕的。【考点】 be crowned with 以……为高峰;终于得到(荣誉等)例如:Their efforts were crowned with success.他们的努力终于获得了成功。Their hard labours were crowned with honors.他们的艰苦劳作得到了表扬。

cruel--cruel adj. 残忍的, 残酷的Anyone who likes watching people suffer is cruel.喜欢看到别人受苦的人是残酷无情的。【考点】 比较 cruel, brutal和 pitiless:三者都表示残忍无情。cruel着重指对别人的痛苦毫无怜悯之情, 并有乐于看别人受苦的意思, 可修饰人、行为、态度等。如:cruel man/punishment(残忍的人/惩罚)。brutal指野兽般的残忍、野蛮、凶恶和极端的愤怒。例如:Brutal soldiers beat prisoners.野蛮的士兵殴打他们的俘虏。pitiless 是指对受苦者毫无怜悯之心。例如:The pitiless woman refused to help the poor sick girl.这铁石心肠的妇人拒绝帮助这个生病的可怜女孩。

cue--cue n. 暗示, 信号;提示Actors have to learn their cues as well as their own lines.演员不仅要记住台词, 还要记住其他演员的暗示。【考点】 注意与cue有关的两个短语:on cue恰好在这时候例如:I couldn't lift the sofa upstairs. On cue, my friend came.我无法将沙发抬上楼, 恰好在这时候我的朋友来了。take one's cue from 学……的样, 听……的劝告例如:Take your cue from me at the party about when it is time to leave.什么时候该离开聚会, 你看我的暗示。Being a stranger, he took his cue from the actions of the natives.作为异乡人, 他看当地居民怎样行动他就怎样行动。

cure--cure v. 治愈, 医治, 矫正, 纠正I hope you will be completely cured.盼你完全恢复健康。【考点】 辨析 cure和 heal:cure“医治”, 多用于疾病, 偏重医治。例如:The doctor cured him of a disease.医生给他治病。heal“治愈”, 多用于外伤, 偏重治好。例如:Though the wound is cured, it is not healed.这伤口医是医了, 可还没有医好。

customer--customer n. 顾客, 主顾The store has more customers than it can take care of.这家店铺顾客多得应接不暇。【考点】 辨析 guest, customer和 client:这三个词都当“顾客”讲, 但所指具体内容各不相同。guest指旅社、饭店等的顾客。如:aregular guest at a hotel(旅馆的常客)。customer 指商店的顾客。例如:The new shop across the road has taken away most of my customers.路对面的那家新店夺去了我的许多主顾。client 指银行、律师的委托人。例如:“He is one of my clients.”the lawyer said.律师说:“他是我的委托人。”

damage--damage n.& v.损害, 毁坏The new law has done a lot of damage to the government's popularity.这条新法律给政府的声望带来很大损害。【考点】(1)damage 名词复数形式, 意思是“赔偿费”。例如:The newspaper was ordered to pay damages to the movie star for printing an untrue story about him.由于刊登了关于某电影明星的不实之事, 该报被勒令向该电影明星付赔偿金。(2)辨别 damage, wound, injure和 hurt:damage指损害某事物;wound指(人)在战斗、攻击中受伤, 身体上出现明显的伤口。hurt和injure指(人)在平时或事故中受伤, injure大多数造成容颜、机能的损害, 而hurt则有强烈的疼痛感。例如:After being wounded in the fighting, he was in an accident when his car was damaged but he himself not injured/hurt.在战斗中负伤后, 他的汽车又因发生了事故而被撞坏了, 但他本人并没有受伤。

danger--danger n. 危险, 威胁, 危险物He seems to be aware of the dangers of smoking.他似乎意识到吸烟的危害。【考点】 注意下面两个短语的含义:in danger 在危险中, 垂危例如:His life is in danger.他的生命有危险。His ship is in danger of sinking.他的船有沉没的危险。out of danger 脱离危险例如:She has been very sick, but now she is out of danger.她一度病得很重, 但现在已经脱离危险。She is not out of danger but I think she'll do.她没有脱离危险, 但我想她会的。

dare--dare v. 激, 向……挑战;敢His mother thinks that somebody must have dared him to steal bike.他母亲认为一定有人怂恿他儿子去偷自行车。【考点】 dare somebody to do something = to challenge, 意思是“以挑衅的口吻问对方敢不敢做某事”, 在表达这层意思时, dare后面接带to的动词。例如:I dare you to tell your mother!我谅你不敢告诉你母亲!Somebody dared me to jump off the bridge into the river.有人激我敢不敢从桥上跳进河里。

dark--dark n. 黑暗, 暗处All the lights went out and we were left in the dark.所有的灯都熄灭了, 周围一片黑暗。【考点】 dark常与定冠词连用, 但如表示“天黑前或天黑后”, 就应该说 before dark或 after dark, dark前面没有定冠词。例如:I'm afraid to go out after dark in the city.在城市, 我害怕天黑后出门。

date--date n. 约会;日期, 年代I had a date with Jenny tonight.我今晚与詹妮有约会。【考点】 注意以下两个短语:out of date过期例如:His information about London is out of date.他有关伦敦的资料过时了。A lot of new words go out of date very quickly.许多新词很快会过时。up to date时新的例如:It was a modern factory----everything was really up to date.这是座现代化工厂——所有东西都是最新的。

datum--datum n. 数据, 资料Thank you for furnishing me with so many data.感谢你为我提供了这么多资料。【考点】 datum是单数, data是复数, 但现代英语中已很少用datum, 无论是单数还是复数, 都用data, 所以data用作主语时其谓语动词用单、复数形式均可。例如:The data is/are all ready for examination.资料已备好可供审查。

dawn--dawn n. 黎明, 拂晓The mailman has to get up before dawn every day.邮递员每日必须天不亮就起床。【考点】 dawn前面总是用介词 at, 表示“在黎明”。例如:We must start at dawn.我们必须天一亮就启程。

deadly--deadly adj. 致命的, 致死的The shock was deadly to him.这次打击对他是致命的。【考点】 deadly虽是以ly结尾, 但属于形容词, 如果用作副词则表示“极度、非常”的意思。例如:He loved his mother deadly.他深深地爱着他的母亲。

deaf--deaf adj. 聋的;不愿听的The old man is as deaf as a post.这位老人完全聋了。【考点】 比较 deaf in和 deaf to:这两个词组中的形容词 deaf都用作表语。deaf in指某人生理的缺陷, 表示“(耳朵)聋”的意思, 尽管也可用deaf of代替, 但 deaf of毕竟是比较陈旧的用法。例如:He is deaf in one ear (his ears).他一只耳朵(两只耳朵)聋了。The little girl is deaf in her left ear.那小姑娘的左耳聋了。deaf to后通常接意见、劝告、建议等名词, 表示某人“不听”劝告、意见,或者“拒绝听取”劝告、意见等意思。例如:He is always deaf to advice.他总是不听劝告。The principal is deaf to all pleas for mercy.那位校长对一切宽恕的请求都置之不理。注意:在表示某人“眼瞎”、“腿瘸”时, 其形容词blind和lame后也必须用介词in, 即blind in;lame in。

deal--deal n. 数量, 程度;交易They closed the deal after a week of negotiation.经过一星期的谈判, 他们达成了交易。【考点】 a great/good deal of 大量(的), 许多(的)例如:A great deal of money has been spent on the new hospital.为建这所新医院已经花了大量的钱。I have travelled a great deal of Europe.我游历了欧洲的许多地方。注意:a great/ good deal of后面只能跟不可数名词。

dear--dear adj. 昂贵的;亲爱的In the middle of the summer, fresh oranges are dear.在仲夏, 新鲜橘子很贵。【考点】 比较 dear, expensive和 costly:dear“高价的”, 和cheap相对。如果说“这东西价钱贵”, 该说作“The article is dear.”, 不能说作“The price is dear.”, 因在 dear和cheap中已含有price的意味在里面, 但可说“The price is high.”。expensive含有“超过某物的价值或购买者的财力”的意味。例如:A journey to the coast was an expensive affair.到海边旅行很昂贵。costly“昂贵的”, 需要极大的费用, 含有奢侈、珍奇、精致等意味。例如:Dainty and costly dress is second nature to her.喜爱精致昂贵的衣服是她的第二天性。

debate--debate v. 争论, 辩论We debated for half an hour at the meeting.我们在会上争辩了半个小时。debate v. 争论, 辩论【考点】 辨析 debate, argue和dispute:这三个词都表示“辩论”、“争论”。debate着重于双方各自陈述理由, 因此“交锋”、“往返”的意味较强, 因为debate原义为“舌战”。例如:On Sunday night a liberal schoolmaster challenged me to debate on Liberal Socialism.星期天晚上一位有自由主义思想的校长就自由社会主义方面的问题跟我展开了舌战。argue着重“说理”、“论证”和“企图说服”。例如:I argued him into staying here.我企图说服他留在这儿。dispute着重就分歧进行热烈的“争论”, 常含有“相持不下”或“未得到解决”的意味。例如:They disputed for hours whether to start at once or wait.是立即去还是等一会儿去, 他们争论了好几个小时。Whether his new method will work is still disputed.关于他的新方法是否有效的问题还在讨论着。

debt--debt n. 债, 债务The shopkeeper owed a lot of money and could not pay his debts.店主欠了许多钱, 还不了债了。【考点】 in debt 欠债, 欠情例如:I'm heavily in debt at the moment, but hope to be out of debt when I get paid.现在我欠债很多, 但希望在发了工资以后能付清。He is over head and ears in debt.他债台高筑。

decent--decent adj. 体面的;正派的, 合乎礼仪的We must provide decent housing for the poor.我们必须给穷人提供适当的住房。【考点】 比较 decant和 decent:这两个词只有一字母之差, 其意义和用法却不相同。decant是及物动词, 表示“将……慢慢倒进……之中”的意思。主要指将液体、酒、药水等倒进另一容器之中, 以便使沉淀物留在原容器之中。例如:Take care not to push him. He is decanting the wine into a cup.当心别撞了他。他正在把酒倒进一个杯中。decent是形容词, 可用作定语或表语, 它主要有两个意思:①体面的, 像样的。一般形容人的衣着、生活等;②正派的, 文雅的。一般形容人的语言、举止等。例如:Put on some decent clothes before you call on the Smiths.去拜访史密斯家时, 衣着要端庄些。Never tell stories that are not decent.切勿讲不文雅的故事。It's said that he is a very decent fellow.据说他是一个十分规矩的人。

decide--decide v. 决定, 下决心He wished that his father would decide the matter for him.他希望他父亲给他决定此事。【考点】 decide作“解决, 裁决”解时, 是及物动词, 后面直接跟宾语。例如:It has been satisfactorily decided.这件事已圆满解决。The judge will decide the case tomorrow.法官明天判决此案。

decisive--decisive adj. 决定性的The injury to their key player could be a decisive factor in the game.他们主力队员受伤可能是这场比赛胜负的决定因素。【考点】(1)decisive 后面可接介接in或to, 接介词in时, 表示在某方面英明果断;接介词to, 表示对某事有决定性作用或意义。例如:He is decisive in business.他在做生意方面很果断。The enemy's lack of wise leaders was decisive to its defeat.敌人缺乏英明的领袖, 对其失败有决定性作用。(2)比较decided和decisive:decided是decide的过去分词, 因而有“决定了的”、“明确的”之意;而 decisive意为“决定性的”。例如:China's economic reform is a decided victory, but whether it is a decisive one only time can tell.中国的经济体制改革肯定成功, 但是否是决定性的胜利只能由时间来回答。

declare--declare v. 宣布, 声明, 宣告;断言, 宣称The U. S. declared war on England in 1812.1812年美国向英国宣战。【考点】 declare后还可接介词against或for, 即declare against sb./sth. 表示“(公开)宣称反对……”;declare for sb./sth. 表示“(公开)宣称支持……”。例如:They declared against racial discrimination.他们声明反对种族歧视。He declared for his loyalty to the government.他(公开)宣称他对政府的忠心。

decline--decline v. 拒绝, 谢绝;下倾, 下降We asked them to come to our party, but they declined the invitation.我们邀请他们来参加我们的聚会, 但是他们谢绝了。【考点】 比较 decline, refuse, reject和 repel:decline“拒绝”、“谢绝”, 指“谦恭地拒绝”的意思, 如:辞谢申请、提案、要求、引诱、争论等。例如:The witness declined to answer certain questions put to him.证人婉言拒绝回答向他提出的一些问题。refuse“拒绝”, 指拒绝要求, 是最普通的用语, 如:拒绝申请、要求、请愿、引诱、忠告、命令、赠物、入场、援助、同意、承诺、约定、官职等。例如:They refused him admittance.他们拒绝他进入。reject“拒绝”、“抵制”, 用于正式场合, 如:抵制外交或商业条款之类。另外它还有“抛弃”、“剔除”的意思, 后接名词。例如:The Japanese Government has rejected the “protest”of the revisionists.日本政府已经拒绝了修正主义的“抗议”。repel“击退”、“拒绝”、“排斥”,它的语意更强, 如:击退敌人、攻击、议论、弊害、诱惑等。例如:The fort's defenders repelled the attacking enemty.守卫要塞的人击退了进攻的敌人。

decorate--decorate v. 装饰, 装潢;布置Bright posters decorate the streets.鲜艳的广告招贴画点缀着街道。【考点】 辨析 decorate, furnish和ornament:这三个词都有“装饰”、“布置”之意。decorate指目的为了美化、庆祝的装饰。例如:We decorated the house for the holidays.我们为庆祝节日而布置房子。furnish是指装饰、布置房子和家具。例如:The office is furnished with two desks and four chairs.办公室陈设简朴, 只有两张桌子、四把椅子。ornament指给某物添加上东西以衬托某物, 使其增光。例如:She ornament her dress with lace.她以花边装饰她的衣服。

decrease--decrease v. 减少, 减小Decrease the dose of medicine as you feel better.随着身体好转减少剂量。【考点】 辨析 decrease, diminish, lessen和reduce:decrease“减少”、“降低”, 一般用语, 有逐渐的过程。例如:Water consumption decreased during the summer.夏天, 水的消耗量减少了。diminish“减少”、“降低”, 是较庄重的用语, 特指“缩减”的意思。例如:Some nations have diminished in population.有些国家人口已经减少。lessen“减少”, 是日常用语, 指数目、程度、分量、价值或势力的减少。例如:“Lessen my pain first”, she said to the doctor.她对医生说:“先减轻我的痛苦。”reduce “减少”、“降低”, 一般只作及物动词, 含有“每况愈下”的意味;还指“质”的变化。例如:They have reduced the price of the coat from 100 to 65.他们把那件上衣的价格从100美元降到65美元。

dedicate--dedicate v.奉献, 把……用在The doctor dedicated his life to finding a cure.为了寻找治疗方法, 大夫奉献了他的生命。【考点】 dedicate常用于 dedicate one's life to的结构中, 其中 to是介词, 跟名词或动名词等, 而不是动词不定式的标记。例如:She dedicated her life to helping the poor.她毕生致力于帮助穷人。

dedication--dedication n. 对某事业或目的的忠诚;奉献I admire the priest' s dedication.我钦佩这位牧师的奉献精神。【考点】 at the dedication of 在……落成仪式上例如:Address at the dedication of the Gettysburg National Cemetery在葛底斯堡阵亡将士公墓落成仪式上的讲话

deem--deem v. 认为, 相信He deemed that it was his duty to help him.他认为帮助他是他的义务。【考点】 及物动词deem最常见的用法是宾语后接形容词或名词作补语。例如:They deemed my work worthy.他们认为我的工作有价值。I shall deem it an honour if you will join our party.倘蒙莅临舍下晚会, 不胜荣幸。

deep--deep adj. 深的, 深刻的, 深切的The party showed deep concern for us.党对我们表示了深切的关心。【考点】 deep和deeply均可作副词, 意为“深深地”。但deep指具体意义上“深深地”;而 deeply则指抽象意义上“深深地”。例如:Still waters run deep.静水流深。She loves you deeply.她深深地爱着你。

defect--defect n. 缺点, 缺陷The machine is unsafe because of the defects in it.这机器有毛病, 不安全。【考点】 比较 defect和 fault:这两个词均有“缺陷”的意思。fault为积极的用语, 指道德上的过失, 又指关于人的性格或习惯上的弱点或缺点。例如:I find a fault in your way of dealing with the matter.你处理这件事情的方法我发现有些不对。defect为消极的用语, 适用于性格时, 指在完美中有缺陷处。例如:This was his fatal defect, he was of feeble will.他意志薄弱, 这是他致命的缺点。

delay--delay v. 耽搁, 延迟She delayed for two hours and missed the train.她耽搁了两小时, 误了火车。【考点】 delay后面常跟名词或动名词等作宾语, 极少跟动词不定式。例如:We decided to delay (going on) our vacation until next month.我们决定把假期推迟到下个月。

delicious--delicious adj. 美味的Honestly I thought the fried chicken was delicious.老实说, 我认为炸鸡好吃。【考点】 辨析 delicious, sweet 和 nice:delicious指味和色都非常好的, 它的用途, 仅比nice稍为窄些。例如:It is a delicious fruit.它是一种美味的水果。sweet有“甘甜的, 芬芳的”、“新鲜的”等意味在内。例如:It is somewhat sweet to the taste.它略带甜味。nice是谈话中的用语, 也是意味最广的用语。有特别使感官愉悦的意味。鱼肉之类是nice的,但不是sweet的,惟独糖、果、饼之类是nice而兼sweet的。例如:It is nice to eat.它很好吃。

delight--delight n. 快乐, 高兴I read your new book with real delight.我十分喜悦地阅读你的新书。【考点】 take delight in以……为乐例如:He takes much delight in his studies.他从学习中得到极大的乐趣。I take delight in working at arithmetical problems.我以解数学难题为乐。

deliver--deliver v. 发表, 表达;交付;释放The judge delivered himself of the view that the defendant should not be treated too leniently.法官发表意见说, 被告不应当受到过于宽大的处理。【考点】 deliver作动词, 除有“发表”、“交付”、“释放”之意外, 还有“接生”之意。例如:They delivered the child.他们接生了这个孩子。The doctor delivered Mrs Jones of twins.大夫给琼斯太太接生了一对双胞胎。

demand--demand v. 要求, 请求, 需求He demands that he be told everything.他要求将一切都告诉他。【考点】 辨析 demand, inquire, ask, beg, pray, require和 claim:demand“要求”, 含有“强权地”和“断然地”要求之意, 是比require更为积极的用语。例如:Forced contributions of cattle and corn were demanded from the counties.县里要求捐献家畜和玉米。inquire“问, 打听”, 不能以人作宾语, 介词of后接人, at后接地点。例如:He inquired of me the best way to study English.他问我学习英语的最好方法是什么。ask 是最普通的用语, 父母要求子女、子女要求父母、主人要求仆人、仆人要求主人, 都可用这个词来表达。例如:I came to ask you a great favour.我来请求你帮个大忙。另外, 注意ask这个词后面所接的介词:to ask a person a question(询问一般事物的形式); to ask a person for money(要求有形的东西的形式);to ask a favour of a person(要求无形的东西的形式)。beg“请求”, 表示恳求、一再要求的意思。例如:The child begged not to be left home.那孩子恳求不要把他留在家里。pray原意指祈神, 转变为“热心地乞求”, 是与request同义而较为庄严的用语。例如:She prayed him to pardon her.她求他宽恕她。require含有“要求履行”的意思, 尤指行为的要求, 它的语气, 比demand稍弱。例如:He required that the direction should be pointed out accurately.他要求准确指出方向。claim指正当权利的要求, 如财产、王位、继承、损害赔偿等的要求。例如:He claims to be the rightful heir.他要求成为合法的继承人。考点247247.He deposited his baggage in my office and went out to lunch.他把行李存放在我的办公室里然后出去吃午饭。deposit v. 存放;储蓄;使沉淀【考点】 常用介词搭配:deposit sth. with sb. 把某物寄放在某人处。例如:I deposited my books with my classmate.我把书寄放在同学那儿。The title deeds are deposited with him.地契存放在他处。

deprive--deprive v. 夺去, 使丧失The failure deprived the physician of his popularity.那次失败使那位医生名誉扫地。【考点】 deprive常用于deprive sb. of sth. 的结构中, 表示“剥夺某人的某种东西”。例如:They are deprived of their rights as citizens.他们被剥夺了公民权。The new laws threaten to deprive many people of the most elementary freedom.新的法律可能会剥夺许多人最基本的自由。

derive--derive v. 取得, 导出, 引申He derives much pleasure from his studies.他从学习中获得了极大的乐趣。【考点】 derive常和介词from连用, 表示“从……取得, 从……派生出”。例如:His popularity derives from his easiness.他受欢迎是由于他为人随和。Many English words are derived from Latin and Greek words.许多英语单词来自拉丁和希腊词。

description--description n. 描写, 形容I recognized the man from the description in the newspaper.从报纸上的描述我认出了这个男人。【考点】 注意 description作名词, 还有“种类”的意思。例如:In the crowd there were people of every description.人群中有各种各样的人。The king was a tyrant of the worst description.这国王是最恶的暴君。

desert--desert v. 抛弃, 遗弃, 擅离, 开小差The enemy chieftain was opposed by the masses and deserted by his follower.敌人的头目众叛亲离。【考点】 比较 desert, abandon, give up和 quit:desert指将法律上或道德上应尽的义务、责任或誓言等加以抛弃, 常有非难和有罪的涵义。例如说:抛弃所属的军队、军务、妻子、友人、本国、邻里等。但在 the deserted village, the deserted streets那样的句子里, 只作“荒凉的”解。例如:It was about midnight when they went along the deserted streets.大约半夜他们沿着静无一人的街道走。abandon 指绝对的和决定的舍弃, 不愿第二次再看见或想到它。例如:抛弃政策、计划、希望、意见、妻子、亲戚、朋友、地位、职业、场所、习惯、恶事、破船等。例如:He abandoned his desolate home, and set out upon a long journey.他抛弃了他凄凉的家, 开始了一次长时间的旅行。give up是一般的用语, 从“绝望”的意思转变为“放弃”的意思。例如:But could he, even now, give up Christine?但即使是现在, 他能舍弃克里斯汀吗?quit指突然地或不愿意地离去, 是和give up相当的用语。例如:Have you not told him to quit the house instantly?你没告诉他马上搬出这所房子吗?

desirable--desirable adj. 称心的, 期望得到的It is desirable to be able to travel widely.能广泛旅行是令人羡慕的。【考点】 当desirable用在“It is desirable+that从句”的句子结构中时, 从句中的谓语动词应用虚拟语气, 即“should +动词原形”。例如:It is most desirable that he should attend the conference.他能参加这次会议是最好不过的了。It is desirable that he (should) be here by eight o'clock tomorrow.明天8点钟前他赶到这里是很理想的。

detach--detach v. 分开, 拆开We must detach these parts.我们必须把这些零件取下来。【考点】 detach 常和介词 from连用, 表示“把……与……分离开”。例如:They detached the locomotive from the train.他们使火车头与列车脱离了。She detached the baby's hand from her dress.她把孩子的手从她的衣服上拉开。

detail--detail n. 细节, 详情I checked every detail of her research.我核对了她的学术研究的各个细节。【考点】 in detail 详细地例如:There isn't enough time to explain in detail.没有时间来详细解释了。She began to tell me the plot in great detail.她开始极其详细地告诉我这个细节。

detain--detain v. 耽搁The bad weather detained us for several hours.坏天气耽搁了我们几个小时。【考点】 detain作动词时, 还作“扣留”、“拘留”讲。例如:The police have detained two men for questioning at police station.警察拘留了两个人在警察局里。The police detained the suspect at the border.警察在边境扣留了嫌疑犯。

develop--develop v. 发展, 开发, 研制;发育, 生长The place has developed from a fishing port into a thriving tourist centre.这地方由原来的海港发展成一个繁荣的旅游胜地。【考点】 develop 作动词, 还作“显现”、“显影”讲。例如:He developed the photographs which he had taken.他冲洗了他拍的照片。I think the photographs will look nice when they're developed.我想这些照片冲洗出来会很好看。

devote--devote v. 奉献, 致力He devoted his life to mission work in Africa.他将他的一生奉献于非洲的传教工作。【考点】 devote常用于 devote oneself to(致力于, 献身于)或 be devoted to(专心致志于, 献身于, 忠于)的结构中, 其中to是介词, 而不是动词不定式的标记。例如:For four years he devoted himself to the law.他花了4年时间潜心研究法律。That newspaper is devoted to making money and little else.那家报纸只顾赚钱, 几乎不干别的。

diet--diet n. 饮食, 食物Proper diet and exercise are both important for health.合适的饮食和适量的运动对健康都很重要。【考点】 (be) on a diet 节食例如:I can' t eat chocolate. I'm on a diet.我不能吃巧克力, 我在节食。The doctor put her on a diet.医生限制她的饮食。

difference--difference n. 差别, 差异, 分歧He attempted to mediate their differences.他试图调解他们的分歧。【考点】(1) difference常用于 difference between…and…的结构中, 表示“……与……之间的区别”。例如:There are many differences between living in a city and living in the countryside.住在城市和住在乡村是有很多差别的。(2)make a/ the difference 有影响, 很重要例如:It won't make any difference to you.这对你没有什么影响。Your support will certainly make a difference in our cause.你的支持在我们的事业中将一定是很重要的。

different--different adj. 各种的, 差异的, 不同的The two boys are different in their tastes.这两个男孩的情趣不同。【考点】 辨析 different, various, diverse和 several:different“不同的”, 普通的用语。例如:Perhaps tomorrow things may look different.明天也许事情看起来就不一样了。various“各种各样的”, 指同一范畴内的不同种类, 只和复数名词连用。例如:I came across various people.我碰见过各种各样的人。diverse“不同的”, 指性质全然不同的, 大体和 different相同, 但语意较强, 并且是指显著的区别。例如:Now that Mary Ann was conscious of these diverse humours in Lancelot, …既然玛丽·安注意到了兰斯洛独特的幽默风格……。several“几个的”, 指两个以上但又不是十分多的。例如:There are several points on which I should like your advice.有几点我想得到你的忠告。

difficult--difficult adj. 困难的, 艰难的I found English much more difficult to learn.我发现英语难学得多。【考点】 比较 difficult和 hard:difficult“难的”, 指智的方面的困难, 是“not easy”的意思, 用以指需要“特种的努力或技巧”的事, 需要单纯的肉体的力的时候, 不能用 difficult, 该用 hard。此外, hard task指需要极大的努力的事;difficult是消极的用语, a difficult task仅指不容易做的事, 做起来却并不需要怎样的努力。difficult常用以指琐碎的事, 如解答难题, 解开乱绳结, 都是difficult的事。例如:The problem is difficult to solve.这个问题难以解决。hard“困难的”, 单纯的和一般的用语, 可用以指肉体的事, 又可用以指精神的事。特别在仅需要肉体的力的场合用hard, 如不用滑车而起卸重的东西是困难的(hard)工作。例如:I had hard work to persuade him.我难以说服他。

difficulty--difficulty n. 困难, 困境, 难题Would you kindly see me through my financial difficulties?你能帮我渡过经济难关吗?【考点】 difficulty常用于 have difficulty (in) doing sth. (做某事有困难)的结构中。例如:You will have difficulty (in) finding a good lodging house in the city.你想在这个城市里找到一家好公寓是很困难的。She had great difficulty in understanding him.她觉得很难理解他。

diplomatic--diplomatic adj. 外交的, 从事外交的They tried to settle the dispute by diplomatic means.他们试图通过外交手段解决这一争端。【考点】 diplomatic还作“策略的”、“有手腕的”讲。例如:You have to be very diplomatic if you want him to approve of the plan.你如果要他赞成这项计划, 就必须十分注意策略。He is diplomatic in dealing with people.他与人打交道老练得体。

direct--direct adj. 径直的, 直接的He was asked to leave the school as direct result of his behavior.他被学校开除的直接原因是他的行为而不是别的什么。【考点】 direct和directly均可作副词, 表示“直接地”, 但它们的具体用法各异。direct意为“径直地, 直接地”, 表示实际距离, 一般用来修饰动词。例如:We went direct from Wuhan to Beijing.我们直接从武汉到北京。(没有去其他地方或采取迂回的道路)I will buy the bicycle direct from the factory.我将直接到工厂里去买自行车。directly也有“径直地, 直接地”的意思, 但它一般用于借喻中, 多用来修饰分词或形容词;也可用来修饰动词, 这时可与direct换用, 但不如direct常见。 directly还有“立刻, 马上( immediately)”的意思。例如:Smith is directly affected by the economic crises.史密斯直接受到了经济危机的影响。This measure doesn't affect me directly.这个措施对我没有直接影响。

direction--direction n. 指令, 说明;方向, 方位I gave him full directions to enable him to find the house.我做了详细说明, 好让他能找到那房子。【考点】(1)direction作“方向”解时, 它前面一般用介词in,表示“在”和“向”。如:in all directions(在四面八方);in many directions(在许多方面); in every direction(在每个方面)。(2)direction作“指示”、“说明”解时, 前面接介词under, 意为“在……指导之下”。例如:The work will be done under his direction and no one else's.这工作只有在他、而非其他人的指导下才会完成。

disappoint--disappoint v. 使失望, 使扫兴I'm sorry to disappoint you, but I can't come after all.很抱歉, 让你失望了, 可我实在不能来。【考点】 disappoint常用在be disappointed at/about (doing)sth.(对某事感到失望)或 bedisappointed in/with sb. (对某人感到失望)的搭配中。例如:Are you very disappointed about/at losing the race?你赛跑输了, 是不是很失望?My parents will be disappointed in/with me if I fail the examination.如果我考试不及格, 父母会对我失望的。

discipline--discipline n. 纪律The teacher can't keep discipline in her classroom.这位老师无法维持课堂秩序。【考点】 discipline作名词, 还有“学科”之意。例如:They attach much importance to such traditional disciplines as history, literature and political science.他们对历史、文学及政治等传统学科非常重视。Mathematics and physics are related disciplines.数学和物理是相关学科。

discover--discover v. 发现Columbus discovered America in 1492.哥伦布于1492年发现了美洲。【考点】(1)discover 作动词,还作“显示”解。例如:Sooner or later truth discovers itself.真理迟早要自明的。(2)比较 discover和 invent:这两个词都作“发现”讲, 但 discover指发现以前就已经存在但尚未被人们所知道的东西, 尤其指科学上的新发现;而invent则表示发现了以前所没有的、不曾存在的事物, 如一件新东西或一种新方法。例如:Cilbert discovered electricity, but Edison invented the light bulb.吉尔伯发现了电, 而爱迪生发明了灯泡。

disease--disease n. 疾病The business of doctors is to prevent and cure disease.医生的职责就是预防和治疗疾病。【考点】 disease作为“疾病”的通称时, 是不可数名词, 只有指“某种疾病”时才是可数名词。例如:Arthritis is a chronic disease.关节炎是慢性病。I have a rare eye disease.我患了一种罕见的眼疾。Some disease is caused by bacteria.有些疾病是由细菌引起的。

dislike--dislike n. 不喜欢, 厌恶He manifested a strong dislike for his father's profession.他明确表示不喜欢父亲的职业。【考点】 dislike作名词, 常用于 have a dislike of/for(不喜欢, 讨厌)或 take a dislike to(讨厌)的搭配中。例如:I have a dislike of/for cats.我不喜欢猫。She took a dislike to him.她讨厌他。

dispatch--dispatch v. 派遣, 调遣, 发送The children have been hastily dispatched out to school.孩子们被急匆匆打发到学校去了。【考点】 dispatch作名词时, 注意下面两种含义:①(公文)急件, 快信例如:He sent a dispatch from Chicago to St. Louis.他把公文从芝加哥递送到圣路易斯。②新闻报道例如:The correspondent sent his dispatch from Hong Kong.这位记者从香港发出了他的电讯稿。

display--display v. & n. 陈列, 展览, 显示She displayed no emotion when she failed her exam.她考试不及格之后未表露出一点感情。【考点】 on display是常用词组, 表示“展出, 陈列”。例如:His paintings are on display at the exhibition.他的绘画已在展览会上展出。

dissertation--dissertation n. (博士学位)论文;专题论文;学术讲演He wrote a dissertation on deep sea fish.他写了一篇有关深海鱼类的论文。【考点】 比较 dissertation, essay, article和 paper:dissertation是这组词中最正式的用语, 指严肃的、理论性的文章, 常具体地指(博士)学位论文, 如:his Ph. D. dissertation(他的博士论文)。essay指结构简练、内容风趣的论说文或描写文, 一般称为小品文或随笔, 但也可指严肃的学术性论义, 如:essays on literature and art(论文学艺术的文章)。article 一般指报刊、杂志等所刊载的文章。例如:He contributed many articles on education to the local newspaper.他曾给当地报纸撰写了多篇有关教育的文章。paper主要指会议上宣读的论文, 也指大学生的学年论文或读书报告, 如:present one's paper at the conference(在会议上宣读某人的论文)。

distance--distance n. 距离, 间隔, 远方, 路程The aeroplane accomplished the distance from Beijing to Shanghai in an hour and a half.飞机用了1个半小时飞完了北京到上海的航程。【考点】(1)in the distance 在远处例如:One can see the ancient ruins in the distance.人们可以看到远处的古代遗址。(2)distance常用于 at a distance(在一定距离的地方)或 at a distance of(在……远的地方)的搭配中。例如:There were some fruit trees at a distance from his home.离他家不远处有一些果树。One can see the ancient ruins at a distance of 20 miles.他们在20英里外就可以看到这一古代遗迹。

distinct--distinct adj. 清楚的, 明显的The earth's shadow on the moon is quite distinct.月球上地球的阴影很清晰。【考点】 distinct 可指一切清晰可辨的东西, 而不强调与同类事物的差异或在特质等方面的不同点, 否则应用distinctive或distinct from。例如:There is a distinct smell of beer in this room.这房子里有一股明显的啤酒味。Beer has a very distinctive smell, it's quite distinct from the smell of wine.啤酒有很特殊的气味,与葡萄酒十分不同。

do--do v. 做, 干;制做;产生;研究;行, 合适Perhaps you can persuade him to do it differently.或许你能说服他用别的方法做这件事。【考点】 注意与do有关的几个短语:do away with 废除, 去掉例如:The company did away with private offices.这公司取消了私人办公室。The law does away with slavery.这项法令废除了奴隶制。do without 没有……也行例如:I don't have enough money to buy a car, so I'll just have to do without (one).我没那么多钱买汽车, 只好作罢了。If there's no sugar, you'll have to do without.如果糖没有了, 你就只好将就一些。have nothing to do with和……毫无关系例如:His job has nothing to do with the government.他的工作与政府无关。What he does at home has nothing to do with his teacher.他在家里的所作所为与老师无关。have something to do with和……有(点)关系例如:Her job has something to do with computers.她的工作与计算机有些关系。His illness has something to do with his overtime work.他生病与他加班加点的工作有些关系。

doctor--doctor n. 博士, 医生He was a Doctor of Philosophy in economics of Yale.他是耶鲁大学经济学博士。【考点】 医治病人或有病的动物的人都可以称为doctor, 如:an animal doctor(兽医)。 doctor还可以具体分为physician(内科医生)和surgeon(外科医生)。

doom--doom n. 厄运, 劫数As the ship sank they faced their doom.船下沉时他们面临死亡。【考点】 doom作动词, 意为“注定, 命定”。通常用于被动语态中,即 be doomed to的结构, 而且to可以看作是动词不定式的标记,也可看作介词。例如:The plan was doomed to failure/to fail from the start.那计划从一开始就注定要失败。He was doomed to disappointment.他注定要失败。

door--door n. 门Most houses have a front door at the front and a back door at the back.大多数房子前面有前门, 后面有后门。【考点】 注意与 door有关的两个短语:next door隔壁的例如:I'm just going next door to see Mrs. Jones.我正要到隔壁看望琼斯太太。The house next door caught fire.隔壁邻居房子着火了。out of doors 在户外例如:We often have our food out of doors in summer.夏天我们常常在户外吃饭。It's rather cold out of doors, you had better put on your overcoat.外面天气相当冷,你最好穿上大衣。

doubt--doubt v.&n. 怀疑, 疑虑I doubt if that was what he wanted.不知道那是不是他想要的。【考点】(1)在简单的陈述句中, doubt后面可以接that/whether/if引出的从句。例如:I doubt that/whether/if he's coming.我怀疑他是否会来。但在否定陈述句中, doubt后面只接that而不接 if或 whether引出的从句。例如:I don't doubt that he's telling the truth.我不怀疑他说的是真话。(2)no doubt 无疑, 必定例如:No doubt you'll be in the office tomorrow.我认为你明天会在办公室。No doubt he means to help, but in fact he just gets in the way.他确实是想帮忙, 然而事实上却是帮倒忙。

doze--doze v. 瞌睡She was dozing in the hammock when I phoned.我打电话时她正在吊床里打瞌睡。【考点】 doze off 打瞌睡例如:After a substantial lunch, he dozed off in the armchair.在饱食午餐后, 他在扶手椅中打瞌睡。The cat dozed off by the fire.那只猫在炉边打盹。

draw--draw v. 画;拉;引出;接近The picture is drawn to the life.这幅像画得惟妙惟肖。【考点】(1)draw作动词时,要注意它有“汲取”、“提取”之意。例如:The polluted pond will have to be drawn and refilled.那个污染了的池塘必须把水汲干, 然后再充水。He drew some money from the bank.他从银行取了些钱。(2)draw作名词, 有“平局”之意。例如:Our team has had five wins and two draws this season.我们队这个赛季赢了5场, 平了2场。(3)注意下面与draw有关的几个短语:draw in(火车, 汽车)到站例如:The train drew in at 7∶53----six minutes late.火车7点53分到站——晚到6分钟。The bus has drawn in.汽车已经进站。draw on 动用, 利用例如:We drew on her experience throughout the project.我们这个项目自始至终都借助她的经验。draw up 草拟;停住例如:They have drawn up a plan.他们已草拟了一个计划。The automobile drew up at our door.汽车在我们家门口停了下来。

dress--dress v. 穿衣, 打扮Is she old enough to dress herself yet?她会自己穿衣服了吗?【考点】 dress up 穿上盛装, 打扮得漂亮例如:Don't bother to dress up----come as you are.用不着穿讲究衣服, 就穿平常的衣服来吧。She wanted to go to dinner but didn't feel like dressing up.她想去参加宴会, 但不愿意打扮。

due--due adj.(车, 船等)预定应到达的;应支付的;应有的Our train is due in Paris at noon.我们的火车定于正午到达巴黎。【考点】 due to 由于, 因为例如:His lateness was due to the very heavy traffic on the motorway.他迟到是因高速公路上车辆过多所致。His illness was due to bad food.他生病的原因是吃了变质的食品。

dumb--dumb adj. 哑的, 无言的He is dumb on the subject.他对这个问题保持沉默。【考点】 比较 dumb与mute:dumb“哑的”, 严格地说, 指对因缺乏语言器官而不能说话或像动物等根本不能说话者而言, 转义也被用在因到惊吓一时说不出话的场合。例如:The child was struck dumb with horror.这孩子吓得说不出话来。mute“无言的, 哑的”, 因受恐怖或其他特殊的原因以至说不出话, 这种状态, 称为mute。dumb和mute常互相通用, 但mute是较为庄严的用语, 主要是指“无言的”的意思。例如:He stood there mute.他站在那里默默无语。

duty--duty n. 税;义务;职务A heavy duty was imposed on foreign radios.对外国收音机收重税。【考点】 注意下面与 duty有关的两个短语:off duty下班例如:When do you come off duty?你什么时候下班?When I'm off duty, I play tennis.我下班后打网球。on duty 值班, 上班例如:I arrived at the hospital at eight o'clock, but I don't go on duty until nine.我8点钟就到医院了, 但是9点钟我才去值班。A policeman must not smoke while he is on duty.警察值勤时不得抽烟。

dwell--dwell v. 住, 居留He dwells in the country during most of the year.这一年大部分时间他都住在乡下。【考点】 dwell是不及物动词, 它常和介词on或upon连用, 指“对…… 谈(说、写、想)得很多”。例如:I will not dwell any longer on this subject.我不想再详细论述这个问题。Let bygones be bygones. Don't dwell so much on the past.过去的事就让它过去吧。不要对过去想得那么多。

eager--eager adj. 渴望的, 热切的He listened to the story with eager attention.他听故事听得很起劲。【考点】 eager常用作表语, 这时后面可跟动词不定式、for引出的介词短语、that从句等。例如:He was eager to visit me.他渴望着来看望我们。The head is eager that all workers shall (should) come in time.工头渴望着所有工人都会及时来到。

ear--ear n. 听力;耳朵He has a sharp ear. 他听觉灵敏。【考点】 ear作名词, 还有“穗”之意。例如:Dropping ears of rice promise another good harvest.沉甸甸的稻穗预示着又一次大丰收。

earth--earth n. 陆地;地球;土, 泥;地上After a week at sea, it was good to feel the earth under one feet again.出海一周后, 为又重新回到陆地上而感到愉快。【考点】 on earth 究竟, 到底例如:How on earth are you going to do it?你究竟准备怎么做这件事?Then what on earth can he be doing?那么他到底可能会在干什么呢?

ease--ease n. 容易;舒适, 悠闲The ease with which he did the work surprised me.他做工作的容易劲儿使我吃惊。【考点】 ease常用在 at ease的词组中, 表示“从容, 自在, 不拘束”。例如:I never feel at ease in his company.我跟他在一起总是感到很不自在。

economic--economic adj. 经济(上)的;经济学的Good transportation is needed for the economic growth of the country.良好的交通运输对于这个国家的经济发展是不可少的。【考点】 辨析 economic和 economical:economic“经济的”, 是指与政治并称的经济。例如:Changes in the economic basis requires a corresponding change in the superstructure.经济基础的变更要求上层建筑也作相应的改变。economical“经济的”、“节约的”, 是指在财物的使用上经济、便宜,含有会操持、不浪费等意味, 可用于人, 也可用于物。例如:It would be more economical to concentrate on one problem at the time.一次集中搞一个问题是更节省的办法。

educate--educate v. 教育, 培养, 训练Young men were once required to be educated in good manners.年轻人过去要接受礼貌方面的训练。【考点】 比较 educate, teach, coach和 instruct:educate表示“教育, 受培养, 训练”的意思。例如:He was educated in law.他受过法律教育。teach“教授, 教导”, 一般用语, 后跟双宾语。例如:The farmers taught us how to do farm work.农夫们教我们怎样干农活。coach“指导, 辅导”, 表示具体指点的意思。例如:He is coaching a basketball team.他正在训练并指导一个篮球队。instruct“教育, 指导”, 较正式的用语, 含有系统教授的意思, 后面很少用不定式。例如:Dr. Williams instructs us in botany.威廉博士教我们植物学。

effect--effect n. 作用, 影响;效力, 效果;结果I tried to persuade him, but with little or no effect.我尽力劝他, 他根本不听。【考点】 比较 effect和 affect:affect作动词, 意思是“影响”。例如:He was affected with fever and always felt hot even in cold days.他患热病, 在冷天也嫌热。effect作动词, 意为“产生, 招致”。例如:She effected several changes in the company.她使公司发生了几个变化。The new hair do effected a startling change in her appearance.新发型使她的容貌产生了惊人的变化。

elect--elect v. 选举, 推选;选择, 做出选择She was unanimously elected to a new leading post.她被一致推选到新的领导岗位上去。【考点】 辨析 elect, choose, select, pick和 prefer:elect“选举”, 指用投票或其他的方法选举, 在神学上, 指按照神意选择, 同时又被用作choose的正式用语。例如:A free people elect their own rulers.自由的民族选举自己的统治者。choose“选择”, 最普通的用语。例如:The first duty of the lecturer is to choose a subject which will interest and instruct.演讲者的首要任务就是选择一个既能引起听众的兴趣又有教育意义的题目。select“选择”, 指从不同种的许多东西中, 加以仔细的辨别后才选择。例如:You may select whatever you please.你可以选择你所喜欢的任何东西。pick“选择”, 有“仔细挑剔”和“苛刻地选择”等意味, 多用于有形的东西。例如:I suppose you can help me pick strawberries.我想你可以帮我挑选草莓。prefer“宁愿选择”, 用以指判断或倾向等, 人们往往choose他们所prefer的事。例如:A person may choose tea though he prefers coffee.尽管一个人更喜欢咖啡,但他也可能会选择茶。

elevate--elevate v. 抬起, 升高A special device elevated the stage for the finale.演最后一幕时, 一种特殊装置把舞台升高了。【考点】 比较 elevate, raise, lift和heighten:elevate“举起, 提高”, 和raise同义, 常被用作比喻的意味, 如提高职位、希望、目的等。例如:The teacher elevated his voice slightly.教师稍微提高了声音。raise“举起”, 最普通的用语。例如:He raised his glass to her.他举杯向她祝酒。lift“举起, 提起”, 有时与raise通用, 但更强调物体的沉重。例如:He lifts a pail of water from the ground.他从地面提起一桶水。heighten“增高”, 用于精神的或物质的意味均可,但普遍不常用这个词。例如:The building was heightened with an additional storey.这楼房加建了一层。

embark--embark v. (使)上船(或飞机、汽车等)We embarked at Montreal, and disembarked in New York a week later.我们在蒙特利尔上船, 一星期后在纽约下船。【考点】 embark on /upon 从事, 着手, 开始工作例如:He embarked on a new career.他开始从事一项新事业。Our paper is embarking on a nation wide campaign for increased circulation.我们的报纸正在全国掀起一个扩大发行量的运动。

embarrass--embarrass v. 使窘迫, 使为难I was embarrassed by his comments about my clothes.他评论我的衣服使我很尴尬。【考点】 辨析 embarrass, puzzle和confuse:embarrass“使困惑”, 有迷乱的意味, 指不快的感情和心情混乱。例如:I am greatly embarrassed with this work.这工作使我感到很为难。puzzle“使迷乱”, 指复杂的事件或困难的问题使人迷惑失措的意思。例如:Who can have told you puzzles me.谁会告诉你, 使我大惑不解。confuse“使混乱”, 指纷乱的思想使人变得不知所措的意思。例如:He was confused by guilt.他为罪恶所困扰。

emphasize--emphasize v. 强调I must emphasize the fact that they are only children.我必须强调这一事实, 就是他们只是小孩子。【考点】 emphasize是及物动词, 其后不接介词on, 而其相应的名词emphasis后面须用介词on/upon, 如:lay/put/place emphasis on/upon等。例如:This dictionary places a special emphasis on grammar.这部字典特别强调语法。Your test should emphasize the vocabulary item more frequently used.你的测试应该强调更常用的词汇。

employ--employ v.& n.雇用The boys were employed in preparing their lessons.那些孩子正忙着预备功课。【考点】 辨析 employ, hire和 engage:这三个词都有“雇佣”的含义。employ表示受雇者虽为薪金而工作, 但他的工作有相当的稳定性, 而且他还有一定的地位和尊严。例如:They are employed as guidance counselor.他们被雇作指导顾问。hire着重指受雇者为薪金而工作之意,有时有“这工作为临时的或一次性的工作”的意思。例如:He hired a plumber to install the new washing machine.他们雇了一位管子工去安装这台新的洗衣机。engage用来指“经过特别的或一次性的签约, 而得到的别人的服务性工作”。这类工作常常指专业性较强的工作。例如:They engaged a lawyer to argue his case in court.他们雇了一位律师在法庭上为他的案子辩护。

end--end n. 末端, 结束;稍, 端They have difficulty in making both ends meet.他们要做到收支相抵很困难。【考点】 in the end“最后, 终于”, 指经过许多变化、困难和捉摸不定的情况之后, 某事才发生, 可以放在句首, 也可以放在句末。例如:The war lasted four years before the North won in the end.战争持续了4年, 最后北方获胜。When a piece of ice is taken into a warm room, it becomes smaller and smaller, until in the end, it disappears completely.把一块冰带到温暖的屋子里以后,它就会变得越来越小,直到最后完全消失。

enemy--enemy n. 敌人, 敌军A politician often has many enemies.政治家常有不少仇敌。【考点】 enemy表示“仇敌, 敌人”时, 属可数名词, 有复数形式, 而表示“敌军, 敌人”时, 属集合名词, 没有复数形式, 谓语动词用单复数均可。例如:The enemy was advancing toward the city.敌军正在向城市推进。Hundreds of enemy were captured.俘虏了几百个敌人。

engage--engage v. (in) (使)从事于, (使)忙着;(使)订婚;雇用I don't engage myself in such affairs.我不参与这种事情。【考点】 engage常用于 be engaged in的结构中, 表示“从事于……, 忙于”。例如:It is a hard and long struggle we are engaged in.我们从事于一项艰难而长期的斗争。

enjoy--enjoy v. 欣赏, 喜爱The play was over before we could fully enjoy it.这场戏我们还没有欣赏就结束了。【考点】 enjoy oneself 过得快活例如:Did you enjoy yourself at the party?你在聚会上玩得开心吗?The children enjoyed themselves playing in the water.孩子们在水中玩得很高兴。

ensure--ensure v.确保, 保证Please ensure that all the lights are switched off at night.夜间请务必将所有的灯关掉。【考点】 辨析 ensure和 insure:这两词均念作 [in'Mu+], 用作及物动词, 都有“保证”的意思, 表示对未来必将发生的某种事情有着肯定的把握, 一般可通用。不过美国人多用insure。例如:I will ensure that the car arrives by six o'clock.我保证汽车6点钟会到。Come early to ensure getting a good seat.早点来, 保证可以弄到一个好位置。另外, insure还可指保险公司对人的生命、财产、意外事故、火灾等的未来做出保险。常同介词against或 for连用, 表示“给……保险”的意思。例如:An insurance company will insure your house against fire.保险公司将给你的房子进行火灾保险。He insured his house for 10000 Yuan.他给房屋的保险费为10000元。

enterprise--enterprise n. 事业, 企事业单位He is good at managing his enterprise.他善于管理他的企业。【考点】 enterprise作名词, 还有“进取心”之意。例如:We need a spirit of enterprise if we are to overcome our difficulties.欲克服困难, 我们需要进取的精神。He got the job because he showed the spirit of enterprise.他因为表现出进取精神,所以得到了这份工作。

entire--entire adj. 完全的, 全部的, 完整的She spent the entire day in bed.她一整天都躺在床上。【考点】 辨析 entire, whole, perfect和complete:entire“整个的, 完好的”, 凡已经分割、破坏或切断的, 都不能称为entire;whole“全部的, 完全的”, 各部分完好无缺的意思。whole含有再分的观念, 而entire则指全然的整个, 例如, 一只橘子切开后, 各部分完好无损, 则可称为 a whole orange, 但因已切开, 便不能说 an entire orange。perfect“完善的, 无缺点的”, 是指质而非量而言;complete“完全的”, 有“完全”到无可复加的意味。complete表示消极的无缺点, perfect 表示积极的具有各种优点, 如一套古器中各个都极其优美, 则可称perfect, 若是一套完好无缺的古器, 则只能说complete.例如:Nothing is perfect in the world.这个世界上没有什么东西是完美的。He if a complete scholar.他是一位无懈可击的学者。

entitle--entitle v. 给予权利(或资格);给……题名You are not entitled to unemployment benefit if you have never worked.从未参加过工作, 就没有资格领取失业救济金。【考点】 entitle表示“给予权利(或资格)”, 常用在 be entitled to或 entitle sb. to的结构中, 其中 to是介词还是动词不定式的标记,要看它后面跟的是名词还是动词原形, 两种形式均可接在 to的后面, 表示“有权(使某人有权)得到或做……”。例如:The one who guesses the answer is entitled to ask the next question.猜到答案的人有资格问下一个问题。His high score entitled him to a prize.他的高分使他有权得到奖励。

equip--equip v. 装备, 配备They had equipped their workers adequately for such dangerous conditions.他们让工人充分装备起来, 以应付这样的危险情况。【考点】 equip后可接介词 with和for, 这两个形容词词组, 均可作表语或后置定语。equipped with 意为“配备(装)有”衣服、工具、食物等, 相当于 fitted with。例如:The soldiers were equipped with the latest weapons.那些士兵是用最新武器武装起来的。Each drawer was equipped with a lock.每个抽屉都装有一把锁。equipped for与 prepared for(为或对……作准备)的意思接近, 指为某一目的而做好准备。例如:They are well equipped for a new task.他们对新任务有充分的准备。He is equipped for the journey.他在为旅行做准备。

essence--essence n. 本质, 实质We must see the essence through the phenomena.我们要透过现象看本质。【考点】 in essence 大体上, 本质上例如:The two things are the same in outward form but different in essence.这两件东西外表相同, 但本质不同。The racial problem is in essence a class problem.种族问题在本质上是阶级问题。

essential--essential adj. 必要的, 必不可少的;本质的, 基本的Railways were essential to the economic prosperity of the country.国家的经济繁荣离不开铁路。【考点】(1)essential常和介词to连用,表示“对……必不可少”。例如:Water is essential to the growth of crops.庄稼生长离不开水。(2)essential用在“It is essential+that从句”的结构中时, 从句中的谓语动词要用虚拟语气, 即“ (should) +动词原形”。例如:It's essential that you attend all the meetings.你务必要参加所有会议。

estimate--estimate v. 估计, 估价The firm estimated the cost of the new house at 3,000.这公司估计新房的价钱为3000美元。【考点】 estimate后面常接介词at或for, 但意义有区别。接介词at, 表示“估计(价格)为”, 而接介词 for, 表示“为……进行评估”。例如:I estimate his income at £500.我估计他的收入为500镑。Ask a contractor to estimate for the repair of the building.请一位包工估计一下修理这房屋需要多少钱。

even--even adv. 甚至(……也), 连(……都)Even wealthy people experienced hardship during the war.就连有钱人战争期间都经历艰辛。【考点】 注意even作形容词用时的几个意思:①平的, 平坦的例如:An even road makes easy.路平开车也容易。A biliard-able must be perfectly even.台球桌必须绝对平坦。②双数的, 偶数的例如:2, 4, 6, 8, etc. are even numbers.2, 4, 6, 8等是偶数。③均匀的例如:The wine cellar stays at an even temperature all year round.这个酒窖常年保持恒温。

event--event n. 事件, 事情Winning the scholarship was a great event in the boy's life.获奖学金是这男孩一生中的一件大事。【考点】 注意下面几个短语的含义:at all events无论如何例如:At all events, we will carry the struggle through to the end.我们无论如何要把斗争进行到底。He is not clever but at all events he works well.他并不聪明, 但不管怎样他做得很好。in any event 无论如何例如:I'll probably see you tomorrow, but in any event I'll call you.我明天能见到你, 但无论如何我会给你打电话。I don't know whether I'm going by car or by train, but in any event I need money.我不知道乘汽车去还是乘火车去, 但无论哪种情况, 我都需要钱。in the event of 万一, 如果发生例如:In the event of fire, ring the alarm-bell.如果着火, 就按警铃。In the event of rain, the party will be held indoors.如果下雨,聚会就在室内进行。

ever--ever adv. 在任何时候If you ever come to Shanghai, be sure to let us know.如果你们到上海来, 务必通知我们。【考点】 for ever 永远例如:The revolutionary martyrs will live for ever in our hearts.革命烈士将永远活在我们心里。Once he gets a drink in his hand he's here for ever.他手里一有了酒就永远也不动地方了。

evidence--evidence n. 根据, 论据;形迹He produced much experimental data as evidence for his theory.他拿出许多实验资料作为他的论据。【考点】 辨析 evidence, proof和 witness:evidence“证据”, 明白地证明某事为真实的事物,都叫做evidence, 它比proof的用法较为庄重, 多用在精神和智力的方面。例如:The judge required me to give evidence.法官要我提供证据。proof“实证”, 是比 evidence更为积极的用语, 意味较强, 它是evidence的结果, 是构成事实结论的东西。例如:What evidence have you to offer in proof of the truth of your statement?你能提供什么证据来证明你的话是真实的?witness“见证”, 多被用作“证人”的意味, 有“目击者”的意义包含在内。例如:Please call him out as witness.请传他当证人。

example--example n. 例子, 实例;模范, 榜样Her rudeness was a typical example of her usual bad manners.她的粗鲁正是她一贯态度恶劣的典型例证。【考点】 比较 example和sample:example指用事实、事物或人作为范例或榜样, 以便可以依照着去做, 常译作“例子”、“典范”或“榜样”。例如:This dictionary has many examples of how verbs are used.这部词典中有许多说明动词用法的例句。We should follow the good example of the advanced workers and work harder.我们应该学习先进工人的好榜样, 更加努力工作。sample一般指同种事物, 尤指从某种商品或产品中提出一个或少量几个作为该类物品的货样。常译为“样品,货样”或“标本”, 间或有“实例”的意思, 一般用作定语。例如:Many firms give away small quantities of their produce as samples,so that people can try them before buying.许多公司拿出少量产品作为样品, 以便使人们在购买之前可以试用一下。Look at the sample question before you mark answers.在回答问题之前看一看例题。Here is another sample sentence for this structure.这是该结构用法的另一个实例。

except for--except for 除……之外The meal was excellent except for the first course.这顿饭好极了, 只是第一道菜稍差。except for除……之外【考点】 在某种意义上说except for与except用法相似, 但except for更强调整体, 指“在整体中除去某一点之外”, 后面可跟名词、代词等, 如果跟从句就得用except that。例如:The Swede stood quite still except that his lips moved slowly.那个瑞典人除了嘴唇还在微微动着以外, 站着一动不动。

exception--exception n. 例外, 除外With the exception of Harry, all the boys were anxious to go.除哈里外, 所有的男孩都渴望去。【考点】 在 with the exception of(除……之外)和 to make an exception of(把……除外)等词组中exception后接介词 of, 但在“there are (no) exceptions to”这类句型中时, exception 后接介词to, 而不接介词of。例如:There are three exceptions to this rule.这个规则有3个例外。

excess--excess n. 过量, 过剩The child had an excess of energy.那孩子精力过剩。【考点】 in excess of 超过例如:The quantity we received is in excess of the quantity lost.我们得到的量超过了损失的量。Luggage in excess of 20 kg is taxed.超过20 公斤的行李要付费。

exchange--exchange v. 交换, 调换, 兑换My cousins and I always exchange Christmas gifts.我和表哥之间经常交换圣诞礼物。【考点】 exchange后面可以跟介词 for或 with。 exchange sth. for sth. 表示“把某物换成某物”;exchange sth. with sb. 表示“与某人交换某物”。例如:Where can I exchange my dollars for pounds?我在哪儿可以把美元兑换成英镑?Mary exchanged seats with Anne.玛丽和安妮交换座位。

exclaim--exclaim v. 呼叫, 大声说He exclaimed how late it was.他惊叫太晚了。【考点】 辨析 exclaim, scream和 shout:exclaim表示“呼喊, 惊叫”, 指人由于惊奇而大声惊叫, 常与说话者的话连用。例如:“What! ”he exclaimed, “are you leaving without me?”“什么!”, 他惊叫, “你要丢下我走吗?”scream 意为“尖叫”, 是一般用语, 指人或动物由于疼痛、害怕、愤怒或兴奋而大声地喊叫。例如:Monkeys often scream loudly when attacked by wolves.猴子受到狼攻击时经常尖声叫喊。shout作“高喊, 大声叫”讲, 也是一般用语, 指人发出较高的声音, 意在引起对方的注意。例如:I shouted to him to warn him of the danger.我对他呼喊,警告他有危险。

excuse--excuse v. 原谅;允许离开, 准假Can I be excused from football practice today?今天足球练习我可以不参加吗?【考点】 excuse作为及物动词, 其宾语可以是人称代词、名词、动词等, 但不能用动词不定式或动词不定式复合结构。例如:Excuse my opening your letter by mistake.原谅我误把你的信给拆开了。Excuse me not having answered your letter before.原谅我以前没有回你的信。

exercise--exercise v. 训练, 锻炼We should constantly exercise our muscles.我们应该经常锻炼肌肉。【考点】 辨析 exercise, practice和 drill:exercise“练习, 操练”, 可用于身心两方面。例如:This is called an exercise of memory.这叫做记忆力的练习。practice“练习, 实践”, 指为了求得完善、熟练, 而有规则地去做某事。例如:It is no good learning without practice.学而不练是不好的。drill “练习, 操练”, 指严格的训练。例如:The teacher gave the students a drill in the use of this computer.教师训练学生使用这台计算机。

exert--exert v. 尽(力), 施加(压力等)If you exert all your strength you can move that rock.如果你竭尽全力, 你就能搬动那块岩石。【考点】(1)exert 常跟反身代词, 表示“努力”。例如:The doctors exerted themselves to save the wounded soldiers.医生们尽力抢救伤员。(2)表示“对某人施加……”时, 用exert…on sb.。例如:My parents have been exerting a lot of pressure on me to change my job.我父母一直对我施加种种压力要我换工作。

expel--expel v. 赶出;驱逐;开除Two attaches at the embassy were expelled from the country.大使馆的两名随员已被驱逐出境。【考点】 比较 expel和 evict;expel表示用武力等或作为惩罚手段强迫某人离开(某地)。例如:They expelled the enemy from the town.他们将敌人从城里赶了出去。evict表示根据租约或法律逐出房客、租户等。例如:The landlord had the legal right to evict his tenants.房东有合法权力驱逐房客。

experiment--experiment n.试验He began a series of experiments in high explosives.他开始做一系列烈性炸药的试验。【考点】 experiment可以作不及物动词, 意思是“进行实验”, 其后跟宾语时, 必须先跟介词on, 也可以用upon或with, 表示“用……做试验。”例如:We experimented until we succeed in mixing the right colour.我们不断进行实验, 直到将所需颜色调配成功。Many people disapprove of experimenting on animals.很多人不同意用动物进行试验。

expert--expert n.专家, 能手She's an expert on/in/at teaching small children.她是教育幼儿的专家。【考点】 expert作“专家”、“能手”解时,后可接介词on,in, at。后接on时,多表示某学科的专家,如:an expert on Eastern philosophy(东方哲学的专家);后接in时,多表示某方面的专家,有时也多接学科名称,如:an expert in city planning(城市规划的专家),an expert in computer science(计算机科学专家);后接 at 时,多表示做某事的能手,如:an expert at trouble-shooting(排忧解难的能手)。

explicit--explicit adj.详述的, 明确的;坦率的The lease is explicit in saying the rent must be paid by the 10th of every month.租约上说得明明白白, 房租必须在每月10号前交付。【考点】 比较explicit和definite:explicit根本意思是讲得清楚以致明白无疑的, 尤用于指说明、说法、规则等详细而明确。如:explicit directions/rules/regulations(明白无疑的指示/规则/条例)。definite除指明白外,还有确定不变的意味,相当于explicit and determinate。如:a definite aim in life(明确的人生目标);a definite answer(明确的回答)。

expose--expose v.使暴露;受到Her youth and beauty will expose her to many dangers.她年轻貌美, 会招来许多麻烦。【考点】 比较expose和reveal:这两个词都表示“使……露出”。expose表示有意识、有目的地揭露和暴露;reveal含有自然显露和流露的意思。例如:Don't expose the baby to the sun for too long. It might harm his eyesight.不要把婴儿放在太阳底下太久, 阳光会损害他的视力。She took great care not to reveal her sorrow over her son's sudden death.她很小心地不把失去儿子的痛苦流露出来。

express--express v.表达, 表示I can hardly express how pleased I was to see him.我简直说不出见到他我有多么高兴。【考点】 express后常跟反身代词, 指“表达自己的意思”。例如:I don't know if I express myself clearly.我不知道我是否把我的意思表达清楚了。

exterior--exterior adj.外部的, 外面的They are painting the exterior wall of the house.他们正在给房子的外墙刷油漆。【考点】 辨析 exterior, external和outer:exterior“外部的”, 指物体的较外部分, 与本身有连带的关系。例如:The exterior decorations look especially showy.外面装饰尤为华丽。external“外部的”, 指外界的部分。例如:The external layer of skin is called the epidermis.皮肤的外层叫做表皮。outer“外部的”, 是指远离中心的意思。例如:The house is in the outer suburbs.房子在郊外。

eye--eye n.眼睛, 眼光, 眼力He lost an eye in an accident, and now has a glass eye.他在事故中失去了一只眼, 现在装上了一只玻璃假眼。【考点】 注意下面与eye有关的两个短语:catch one's eye 引人注目例如:When I finally caught Jim's eye, he came over at once to talk with me.我终于引起了吉姆的注意, 于是他立刻走过来和我交谈。The student tried to catch the teacher's eye.那个学生想引起老师对他的注意。keep an eye on 留意, 照看例如:Please keep an eye on the baby for me.请你替我照看一下婴儿。Could you keep an eye on my suitcase for a moment?你能给我照管一会儿手提箱吗?

eyesight--eyesight n.视力He has lost his eyesight through disease.他因病失明。【考点】 eyesight是不可数名词, 没有复数形式, 间或与不定冠词连用。例如:He has good eyesight.他视力好。He had a keen eyesight.他视力敏锐。

fable--fable n.寓言Tell them the fable about the fox and the grapes.给他们讲讲狐狸和葡萄的寓言。【考点】 辨析 fable, story, legend和 tale:fable“传说, 寓言”, 有时也可指虚构的事。例如:Have you ever read Aesop's Fables?你读过伊索寓言没有?story“故事”, 一般用语, 指叙述一完整的事件。例如:I will tell you the whole story in detail.我愿把整个故事详细地告诉你。legend“传说, 传奇”, 区别于科学、历史。例如:Many historian thought it as a mere legend.许多历史学家认为这仅仅是个传说。tale“故事, 传说”, 与story大致相近, 但具有不真实性。例如:The author told a tale of adventure.作者讲了一个冒险的故事。

face--face n.脸, 面貌;表情;正面 v.面对着;朝, 面向She had large, blue, expressive eyes and a round face.她有一双大而蓝又富表情的眼睛和一张圆脸。【考点】 注意下面几个与 face有关的短语:face to face 面对面地例如:I've often talked to him on the telephone, but I've never met him face to face.我常在电话里和他谈话, 但从未和他见过面。His ambition was to meet his favourite pop star face to face.他向往的是要面对面地见见他心目中的流行歌星。face up to 大胆面向例如:We should face up to our responsibilities.我们应该勇敢地承担起责任。He must face up to the fact that he is no longer young.他应该勇于正视自己不再年轻这一事实。make a face 做鬼脸例如:The schoolboy made a face at his teacher's back.那个男生对着教师的背后做了个鬼脸。The sick boy swallowed the medicine and made a face.那个生病的男孩吞下药并做了个鬼脸。

fact--fact n.事实, 实际Certain facts have become known about what the moon is made of.月球是由什么物质构成的一些事实已为人们知道。【考点】 matter of fact 实际情况, 真相例如:As a matter of fact, we were just talking about you when you came in.不瞒你说, 你进来时我们正在谈论你。As a matter of fact, I should like a word with you.其实我想跟你聊聊。

faculty--faculty n.才能;学院;(学院或系的)全体教员He has the faculty to learn languages easily.他具有学习语言的才能。【考点】 比较 ability, capacity, faculty, genius, gift和talent:ability“才能”, 最普通的用语, 包括天生的和习惯的才能, 用此意义解时, 常用复数形式。例如:I pay them according to their ability.我依照他们的能力而付钱给他们。capacity“力量, 才能”, 通常指容积的承受能力而言, 但在“capacity to rule”那样的语句里, 表示能动的意味, 是天生的一种“力量”或“才能”。此外, ability指实际应用上的才能, 而capacity主要指理解上的能力, 如对于知识或思想的理解力, 以及对事物的忍耐力或宽容力。例如:He has a great capacity for mathematics.他极擅长于数学。faculty“才能”, 指特殊的才能, 又指精练的才能, 在美国特指家政、行政、事务等等的实际能力。例如:His faculty of speech is excellent.他的口才非常好。

fail--fail V.失败, 不及格;衰退, 减弱I passed in maths but failed in French.我数学及格, 但法语不及格。【考点】 fail to 未能例如:He fails to understand its real significance.他没有能够理解其真正的意义。We'll never fail to live up to what our party expects of us.我们决不辜负党对我们的期望。

fair--fair adj.公平的, 合理的He didn't think that the arrangement was fair.他认为这种安排不合理。【考点】 注意该词的一词多义现象:①作形容词时, 还有“晴朗的”、“金发的”的意思。例如:We are hoping for fair weather.我们希望有个好天气。She had fair hair and blue eyes.她金发碧眼。②作名词时, 有“集市”、“交易会, 博览会”之意。例如:They have erected a covered stall at the fair.他们已在定期市场中盖了一个有篷的货摊。At the country fair last year, prizes were given for the best farm products and livestock.在去年的本乡物产交易会上, 最好的农产品及家禽都得了奖品。

faith--faith n.信仰, 信条;信任, 信用Doubts let the girl to forsake her faith and leave the church.种种怀疑导致了这位姑娘抛弃了她的宗教信仰, 脱离了教会。【考点】 faith 作“信任, 信心”讲, 是不可数名词, 常用于 have faith in(对……有信心)或 lose faith in(对……失去信心)的词组中。例如:I'm sure she'll pass the test; I've got great faith in her.我相信她会通过考试的, 我对她充满信心。I've lost faith in that fellow.我再也不相信那家伙了。

fall--fall v.跌倒;下降My little boy has fallen off a ladder and hurt himself.我的小男孩从梯子上跌倒下来, 受了伤。【考点】 注意下面几个与 fall有关的短语:fall back on 求助于, 转而依靠例如:Acting is a very uncertain profession, so you need something to fall back on, such as a university degree.当演员是很不稳定的职业, 因而你需要另一手准备, 例如得到大学的学位。fall in with 符合, 与……一致例如:The idea they put to us fell in exactly with what we ourselves had in mind.他们跟我们说的那个想法与我们自己想到的完全一致。fall out 争吵, 结果是例如:Jean and Paul have fallen out with each other again.琼和保罗又吵架了。fall through 落空, 失败例如:The plan fell through.该计划已经告吹。

fame--fame n.名声He hoped to find a fame as a poet.他希望能成为一位有名的诗人。【考点】 比较 fame, honour和reputation:fame“名声”, 一般指好的意思。例如:He was not anxious for fame.他并不渴望名声。honour“荣誉, 尊敬”, 指具体的奖章、称号时用复数。例如:It is an honour more than I deserve.这光荣我受之有愧。reputation“名誉”, 指公众对某人的看法, 意思可好可坏。例如:He has a reputation for laziness.他的懒惰是有名的。

familiar--familiar adj.亲近的;(with, to)熟悉的, 通晓的He made himself much to familiar with the girl.他对这位姑娘亲密得过分了。【考点】 familiar后面跟介词 with或 to均可, 但意思上有所不同。例如:He is familiar with me.他很熟悉我。He is familiar to me.他对我来说很熟悉。

family--family n.氏族, 家庭;家庭成员Our family has lived in this house for over a hundred years.我们这个家族在这所房子里已经住了100多年了。【考点】 family表示“家庭成员”多作复数看待, 作主语时谓语动词用复数形式, 但如被看作是整体时, 则当单数看待, 谓语动词也用单数形式。例如:His family are waiting for him.他的全家人都在等他。Our family has a reunion every year.我们家每年团聚一次。

fancy--fancy n.爱好, 喜爱, 迷恋He has a fancy to travel around the country.他喜欢周游全国。【考点】 fancy作动词, 意为“想象, 幻想”。常用在 Fancy(doing)sth.!这种感叹句中, 表示“没想到(……竟然)”。例如:Fancy your knowing him!没想到你竟然认识他!

far--far adj.远, 遥远, 久远I long to travel to far places.我渴望到遥远的地方旅行。【考点】 注意下面几个与far有关的短语:by far……得多, 最例如:This applicant is by far the better than that one.这个申请者远比那个好。He is by far the best player of our team.他是我们队最好的球员。far from 远非, 远离例如:He was far from the attainment of this object.他远未达到自己的目标。so far 迄今为止例如:Our plan seems to be working .So far, so good.看来我们的计划行得通。到目前为止一切顺利。

fare--fare n.车费, 船费She went to Hang zhou by boat at a fare of 8 Yuan.她乘船去杭州, 船费8元。【考点】 注意fare作动词时, 有“过活, 进展”的意思。例如:How are you faring in Shanghai?你在上海生活得怎样?I think I fared pretty well on the examination.我想我考得不错。

farm--farm n.农场, 饲养场The stock farm is raising big horses for work in the fields.这个畜牧场在饲养干农活的高头大马。【考点】 farm前总是用介词 on, 即 on the farm(在农场里), 而不能用in。例如:He works on a three-hundred-acre farm.他在一个 300英亩的农场里工作。

fascinate--fascinate v.迷住, 强烈吸引I was so fascinate by the sight that I could not take my eyes off it.我完全被迷住了, 目不转睛地观赏这一景象。【考点】 辨析fascinate和charm:fascinate“迷住”, 这词有运用魔力致使不能抵抗的涵义。据说有几种蛇, 在它们眼中, 具有一种 fascinating power(迷惑力), 凭恃这种力, 能杀死它们所注视着的动物。例如:He was fascinated with her beauty.他被她的美貌所迷住。charm“迷惑”, 这词已失去原有的运用魔力的涵义, 反而指使人愉快的引诱力。例如:Her fine singing charmed every one.她美妙的歌声使谁都销魂。

fault--fault n.过失, 过错;缺点, 毛病He demands perfection in others, but cannot see faults in himself.他对别人求全责备, 对自己的缺点却视而不见。【考点】(1)比较fault和mistake:fault指不十分严重的缺点和毛病, 指人时多指在道德或习惯上存在的缺陷或过失;指物时, 多指功能方面存在的缺陷, 如机器或电器产生的毛病等。而 mistake则多指拼法、文章、计算、决定等出错。(2)find fault 埋怨, 挑剔例如:She finds fault with everything and everybody.她对每一件事、每一个人都吹毛求疵。She's always finding fault with the way I do my hair.她老是挑剔我发型的毛病。

favor--favor n.恩惠, 帮助;好感, 喜爱I want to ask a favor of you, will you lend me your car?请你帮个忙, 把你的汽车借给我好吗?【考点】 in favo(u)r of 有利于, 便于, 赞成, 支持例如:The evidence is in favor of the defendant.证据对被告有利。They were in favor of free trade.他们赞成自由贸易。

feed--feed v.喂养, 饲养;向……供给She was feeding her baby with porridge.她在给孩子喂粥。【考点】 注意下面两个与 feed有关的短语:feed in 输入例如:You feed in money here and the coffee comes out there.你在这里投入钱币, 咖啡就从那里出来。If you feed the data in, you get the analysis a few minutes later.如果你把数据输入, 几分钟后就得到分析结果。be fed up(with) 感到厌烦例如:I'm fed up with your grumbling.我听够了你的怨言。I'm fed up with this wet weather.我厌烦这种潮湿的天气。

feel--feel v.有知觉, 有感觉;感觉, 觉得I felt an insect creeping up my leg.我感觉到有一只虫子往我腿上爬。【考点】 feel like是“欲, 想要”的意思, 其后跟宾语可以是名词或动名词,但不能跟动词不定式。例如:Do you feel like a walk with me?跟我一块儿去散散步怎么样?Do you feel like having a beer?你想喝杯啤酒吗?

few--few adj.& n.少, 几乎没有So few came that we were unable to hold the meeting.出席的人这么少, 我们的会没有开成。【考点】 比较 few, a few和the few:few的含义是“不多(的), 少数(的)”, 相当于not many, 与many 相对, 倾向于否定。虽“有”, 但重点在“少”。例如:Few pigeons were well-fed.没有几只鸽子喂饱了。There are few, if any, French books in the library.图书馆里几乎没有什么法文书。a few的含义是“有几个, 一些”, 相当于several或some, 与 none 相对, 倾向于肯定。虽“少”, 但重点在“有”。例如:Of my friends a few live in Spain.我的朋友中有几个住在西班牙。After the party, a few friends helped clean up.聚会结束后, 有些朋友帮忙打扫。the few是 the many的反义词, 通常指“少数人, 少数东西”。例如:Defeat the many with the few.以少胜多。John was among the few who understood the problem.少数几个人懂那道题, 约翰便是其中之一。

fight--fight v.打(仗), 搏斗, 斗争, 战斗They were fighting back the diseases manfully.他们勇敢地与这些疾病做斗争。【考点】 fight用作及物动词或不及物动词均可, 用作不及物动词时, 常接介词 for或 against, 分别表示“为……而战”和“与……战斗”。例如:Britain fought against the US in the War of Independence.在美国独立战争中英国和美国作战。

final--final adj.最终的, 决定性的What was the final score of the football match?这场足球赛的最后得分是多少?【考点】 比较 final和 last:final“最后的”, 该词不着重事物次序的先后, 而着重终结和最后定局。例如:We have made the final decision. 我们已做了最后决定。last“最后的, 末尾的”, 是指事物部位或动作先后。例如:I took a seat in the last row.我坐在最后一排。

fine--fine adj.晴朗的, 美好的, 细致的You are making very fine distinction.你做的区分非常精细。【考点】 fine作“罚款”讲时, 既可作名词又可作动词。例如:There is a fine of 50 dollars for later time parking which is outrageously high.超时停车罚款50美元, 高得令人不能容忍。He was heavily fined for a breach of the police regulations.他因违反治安规则而被处以大笔罚金。

flare--flare n.& v.闪耀, 闪烁The great flames flared through the darkness.大火在黑暗中闪耀。【考点】 flare up 突然大怒, 突然燃起来例如:The house flared up into flames.房子突然燃烧起来。The mother flared up at her children.母亲对她的孩子们勃然大怒。

flavor--flavor n.味, 风味This water has an extremely acid flavor.这水有一股强烈的酸味。【考点】 比较 flavor与taste:flavor“香味”, 香与味的交合, 指食物等独特的风味, 强调所闻到的味道。例如:The ice-cream has a flavor of apple.这冰激凌有苹果的香味。taste“味, 风味”, 一般的用语, 是指所饮食物的味道, 强调的是尝到的滋味。例如:The medicine has a bitter taste.这药有苦味。

flee--flee v.逃走;逃避They all fled from the burning ship.他们全从着火的船上逃出。【考点】 辨析escape, flee和fly:escape表示脱离或避去不愉快的环境。例如:He lay perfectly still and played dead to escape capture by the enemy.他一动也不动地躺着装死以免为敌人所俘。flee指仓促地和紧急地逃跑。例如:The enemy were defeated and fled in disorder.敌人被击败后仓惶逃跑。fly也指仓促和紧急地逃跑, 比 flee更正规。例如:The dethroned king had flown the country.被推翻的国王逃到国外去了。

fling--fling v.(用力地)扔, 抛, 丢Don't fling your clothes on the floor; hang them up.你的衣服不要扔在地上, 要挂起来。【考点】 注意下面两个短语的含义:fling oneself against/on 猛扑向……例如:The boy flung himself against the enemy.男孩猛地扑向敌人。fling…into… ……投入……, 突然陷入……例如:The reactionaries were flung into confusion.反动派陷入一片混乱。

flock--flock n.(一)群, (禽、畜等的)群;大量, 众多A flock of birds hovers around the farm.一群鸟在农场上空盘旋。【考点】 虫、鸟和动物的“群”译成英语时, 要注意他们所指的类属范围。如:a flock of 是指一群“鸟”、“羊”;a pack of 是指一群“犬”、“狼”;a herd of 是指一群“牛”、“猪”、“象’;a swarm of是 指一群“蜂”、“蚊”、“蚁”、“飞虫”等。

flourish--flourish v.繁荣, 茂盛, 兴旺The British Empire flourished in the 19th century.英帝国在19世纪处于繁荣时期。【考点】 辨析 flourish和thrive:flourish“繁茂, 繁荣”, 源自flower, 原义“百花盛开”, 转义而为植物等繁茂的意味, 又转义而为繁荣的意思。这个词着重指繁茂的状态。例如:The bank is flourishing and it's opened two more branches this year.这家银行兴旺发达, 今年又开了两个分行。thrive“繁茂”, 这个词从grasp的意思转义而为植物发育的意思, 着重指达到flourish的境界的一个过程;长成的植物, 我们说它flourish, 未长成的植物, 我们说它thrive。例如:Young trees thrive When they increase rapidly toward their full growth.小树快成材时其枝叶很茂盛。

flush--flush v.冲洗, 奔流;脸红The pipe is blocked; try flushing it with hot water.污水管堵住了, 试用热水冲一下。【考点】 比较 blush和 flush:blush和flush都表示“脸红”, 但动作的起因不同。因内心感到羞愧或受注目而“脸红”叫blush;因激动、兴奋、激怒、甚至饮酒过多而“脸红”叫 flush。flush强调外表上的“面红耳赤”, 而blush只强调内心的“羞愧”。例如:You ought to blush at your conduct.你应当为你的行为而羞愧。He was flushed with anger.他气得满面通红。(2)flush作形容词, 还有“齐平的”、“同高的”的意思。常用于be flushed with 结构中。例如:Are the edges flush?这边齐吗?The river is flushed with its banks.河水与岸齐平。

follow--follow v.结果是;跟随, 接着;领会If one writes poetry, it naturally follows that he must understand poetry.一个人如果能写诗, 那么他当然就应该懂诗。【考点】 as follows 如下例如:The results were as follows.其结果如下。The main events were as follows: firstly, the president's speech;secondly, the secretary's reply; and thirdly, the chairman's summing-up.主要活动如下:第一项,总裁讲话;第二项,秘书作解答;第三项,主席做总结。

fool--fool v.玩弄, 愚弄 n.笨蛋, 傻瓜You can't fool him; he's much too intelligent for that.你骗不了他, 他聪明得很, 不会上当。【考点】 make a fool of 玩弄, 愚弄例如:Are you trying to make a fool of me?你想愚弄我吗?She is always trying to make a fool of her husband in public.她总是在人家面前设法愚弄她的丈夫。

force--force n.力量;势力He had to use force to get the lid off the can.他只好使劲才打开这罐头盖子。【考点】 in force 有效, 实施中例如:The new safety regulations are now in force.新的安全规则现已生效。The Gregorian calendar has been in force ever since the 1st January,1873.从1873年1月1日以来一直沿用格里历。

foregoing--foregoing adj.在前的, 前述的The foregoing are only a few of the instances.上面所述不过是少数的例子。【考点】 the foregoing 表示“上述的内容”, 作主语时, 句子的谓语动词多用复数形式。例如:The foregoing have all been included in the proposals.以上各点均包括在建议中。

forge--forge v.& n.锻造A bayonet blade is forged from the finest steel.刺刀刃是用最优质的钢锻造的。【考点】 注意forge作动词时, 还有“伪造, 假造”之意。例如:He got the money dishonestly, by forging his brother's signature on a check.他在支票上伪造他弟弟的签名以不法手段得到钱财。

forget--forget v.忘记, 遗忘Did you forget that I was coming today?你忘了我今天要来吗?【考点】 forget后跟动词不定式或动名词均可, 但意义不同。forget to do sth.表示“忘了做某事”, 而 forget doing sth.表示“忘了做过某事”。例如:I forgot to post the letter.我忘寄这封信了。I forgot posting the letter.我忘了寄过这封信了。

form--form n.形状, 形式;表格We could just manage to see the form of an aircraft taking off in the fog.飞机在雾中起飞, 我们仅仅能看出它的轮廓。【考点】 辨析form, shape, pattern和type:form“形”, 意味最广的用语, 指实质或颜色不同的形式, 是一般的用语, 不仅指物质的形式, 有时, 更用以指诗、曲、文字等的格式。例如:It is certain that the clouds are merely a form of steam or vapour of water.无疑, 云只是蒸汽或水汽的一种形式。shape“外形”, 线和面所围成的外观上的形。form含有长、宽、高等, shape仅指外面的形, 例如船的形、平面形、立体形等的形, 都称为shape, 但有时form和shape也常互相替用。例如:When snow is produced in calm air, the icy particles build themselves into beautiful stellar shapes.当雪在平静的空气里产生时, 冰粒就会变成漂亮的星形。pattern“式样”, 指“模型”的意思。例如:The cloth has a chequer pattern.这块布有格子花的图形。type“式样”, 是指“风格”的意思。例如:Her beauty was of another type.她的美貌是另一种风格。

forth--forth adv.向前, 向外Suddenly John came forth, with a sheet of newspaper in one hand.突然约翰走向前来, 手里拿着一张报纸。【考点】 and so forth 等等例如:She kept saying that she was sorry for what she'd done, she'd never do it again, it was just a mistake, and so forth.她不停地说她为所做的事感到抱歉,她永远不再做那种事,那是个错误,等等。

fortune--fortune n.命运, 运气;财产Through all his changing fortunes, he never lost courage.几经命运交替更换, 他从未丧失勇气。【考点】 注意 fortune与几个动词的常用搭配, 如:make a fortune (发财);try one's fortune(碰碰运气);seek one's fortune(外出找出路)。例如:He went to the U.S.A to seek his fortune.他去美国闯天下了。She decided to try her fortune in Hollywood.她决定去好莱坞碰碰运气。

forward--forward adv.& adj.向前(的), 前进(的)Even though we have little money, our plans are going forward.虽然我们没有什么钱, 但我们的计划在进行。【考点】 注意forward还可作动词, 意思是“转交”、“转递”。例如:When we moved, we asked the people who bought our old house to forward all our mail.我们搬家后请买下我们原来房子的人转寄我们所有的信件。These packages will be forwarded immediately.这些包裹将立即发送。

free--free v.(from, of)使自由, 免除Someone has freed the birds from their cages.有人把笼子里的鸟放掉了。【考点】(1)free 表示“使自由”,常与介词from连用,而表示“免除”时与介词of连用。例如:She can't free herself of the idea that someone's watching her all the time.她一直觉得有人在监视她。(2)set free 释放例如:The prisoner will be set free next week.这个犯人将在下周获得自由。I opened the cage door, and set the birds free.我打开鸟笼的门,把鸟放走了。

freedom--freedom n.自由, 自主People there are fighting to gain freedom from foreign control.那儿的人民正在为从外国统治下获得自由而斗争。【考点】 比较 freedom与 liberty:freedom“自由”, 强调无拘束, 可以充分按着自己的意志行事。例如:The tight-fitting coat does not give me enough freedom to move my arms.衣服太紧, 我的手臂不能自由活动。liberty“自由”, 着重指从过去所受的压制拘束中解放出来。例如:The prisoner was set at liberty.这犯人被释放出来了。

friend--friend n.朋友Although Peter is a close friend of mine, David is my best friend.彼得是我的知心朋友, 但大卫是我最知心的朋友。【考点】 make friends交朋友, 友好相处例如:He has a pleasant manner, and makes friends very easily.他态度和气, 很容易交朋友。John is a merry fellow who makes friends.约翰是个性情愉快的人, 善于同人友好相处。be friends with 对……友好, 与……交朋友例如:They soon forgot their differences and were friends again.他们不久就摒弃前嫌而重归于好。They were discussing as to whether on not it is possible to be friends with an Englishman.他们在讨论关于是否可能与英国人交上朋友。

friendly--friendly adj.友好的, 友谊的The children here are quite friendly with one another.这里的孩子相互之间十分友爱。【考点】 比较friendly with和friendly to:这两个词组中的friendly是形容词, 而不是副词, 均用作表语, 介词后须接表示人的名词。friendly with指两人之间的关系, 表示跟某人要好, 认识某人或是某人的朋友。例如:John has been friendly with Tom for the past five or six years.约翰和汤姆交好已有五六年了。I have been friendly with her for half a year.我认识她已有半年了。friendly to 亦可解作 friendly towards, 它是指甲对乙的态度, 即主体对其对象所表现的友好态度, 它还可表示“有利于”的意思。例如:He's not very friendly to newcomers.他对新来的人不大友好。The students in our class are all friendly to the newcomer.我们班上所有的同学对新来的同学都是很友好的。

from--from prep.由于, 出于(表示去除、免除、阻止);从, 自;根据, 按 She managed to restrain him from taking such a foolish step.她设法阻止了他走这么愚蠢的一步。【考点】 注意下面两个词组的用法:from hand to hand常同动词pass连用, 意为“转手, 传递”, 主要指从一个人的手转到另一个人的手, 从一个地方转到另一个地方。例如:Banknotes are perhaps the dirtiest thing under the sun for they pass from hand to hand carrying germs.纸币可能是世界上是最脏的东西, 因为它们带着细菌传来传去。The book passed from hand to hand, till all the people in the village had read it.这本书从一人手里传到另一个人手里, 直到全村的人都读到了它。from hand to mouth常同动词 live连用, 意为“仅够糊口地, 现挣现吃地”, 主要用于指人生活的艰难。例如:They used to live from hand to mouth in the preliberation days.解放前他们一直过着仅够糊口的生活。Mr. Johnson got very little pay, and the family lived from hand to mouth when he had no job.约翰逊先生工资很低,当他失业时,一家人生活没有保障。

fruit--fruit n.水果, 果实This dish is made from a mixture of four different summer fruits.这个拼盘是由四种夏天的水果组成的。【考点】 fruit作名词, 还有“效果, 成果”之意, 且多用作复数形式。例如:His failure is the fruit of laziness.他的失败是懒惰的结果。I hope the old man lives to enjoy the fruits of his labor.我希望这位老人能活着享受到他的劳动果实。

function--function n.功能, 作用One nose loses its function through taking cold.鼻子由于感冒失去其功能。【考点】 function作名词, 还有“职务, 职责“、“函数”之意。例如:The functions of a judge are to decide questions of law.法官的职责是判断法律问题。X is a function of Y.X是Y的函数。

fundamental--fundamental n.基本原则, 基本原理If the boys are going camping for ten days, they'll need to know the fundamentals of cooking.如果这些男孩子要野营10天, 他们需要知道做饭的基本要求。【考点】 fundamental作形容词, 意为“基础的”、“基本的”, 后常接介词to, 表示“对……是必要的”。例如:Fresh air is fundamental to good health.新鲜空气对于身体健康是必不可少的。This is fundamental to the building up of China's national defense.这对加强中国国防建设非常重要。

furious--furious adj.暴怒的, 狂怒的, 猛烈的There was a furious storm outside; it was hard to walk.外面狂风暴雨;步行很困难。【考点】 furious后可以跟动词不定式和从句, 也可以跟不同介词如 with, about或 at 引起的介词短语, 一般说来, with后跟某人, about后跟某事, at后跟做某事。例如:He'll be furious with us if we're late.如果我们迟到, 他会发怒的。There was a furious knocking at the door.门外有人在猛烈地敲门。

furnish--furnish v.供应, 提供This shop furnishes everything that is needed for camping.这家商店供应露营用的各种商品。【考点】 比较 furnish与supply:furnish“供给”, 常指充分而适宜的供给;supply“供给, 补充, 给与”, 指对于缺乏或不足的事物的供给。supply对缺乏而言, furnish对使用而言。例如:The coastline of Great Britain is much indented, and thus furnishes excellent ports.大不列颠的海岸线非常曲折, 由此提供了优良的海港。In order to supply the kitchen and table, markets are held every morning.每天早上都有集市提供生活用品。

further--further adj.& adv.更远, 更往前;进一步There is a cottage on the further side of the hill.在山的那一边有间小屋。【考点】 further作动词, 意为“促进, 增进”。例如:We'll do all we can to further your plans.我们会尽力促进你的计划实施。They do their best to further the cause of peace.他们竭力推动和平事业。

fuss--fuss n.忙乱, 大惊小怪He simply wished to minimize the fuss.他只不过想尽量不大惊小怪。【考点】 make a fuss of 娇养(某人), 过分关怀(某人)例如:Don't make so much fuss of the children.不要对孩子们照顾得过分。Aunt Mary always makes a great fuss of her sister's daughter.玛丽姨妈总是过分娇养她妹妹的女儿。

gain--gain v.获得, 博得The masses gain experience through struggle.群众通过斗争可以取得经验。【考点】 注意gain作动词, 还有“增加”、“(钟、表)走快”之意。例如:The car gained speed as it went down the hill.汽车下山时加快了速度。My watch has gained ten minutes since yesterday.昨天到今天我的手表快了10分钟。

galaxy--galaxy n.银河(系);星系There are many, many stars in the Galaxy.银河系中有许许多多颗星星。【考点】 galaxy作名词, 还有“一群(杰出或著名的人物)”之意。例如:The queen was followed by a galaxy of brave knights and fair ladies.女王身后跟着一群勇敢的武士和美丽的贵妇。

game--game n.比赛;游戏Jane represented Britain in the Olympic Games.珍妮代表英国参加奥林匹克运动会。【考点】 要特别注意game作名词, 还有“猎物”之意。例如:A good hunter always has game on the table.优秀猎手的餐桌上总有野味。He didn't get any game.他什么猎物也没打到。

gear--gear n.齿轮, 传动装置This large gear turns the small one to rotate the cylinder.这一大齿轮带动小齿轮使圆筒转动。【考点】 gear作动词, 有“调整, 使适合”之意, 后常接介词to。例如:We have to gear our lives to the new changes.我们必须使自己的生活适应新的变化。Education should be geared to the children's needs and abilities.教育必须适应孩子们的需要和能力。

generate--generate v.产生, 发生The teacher's remark generated loud laughter.老师的话引起一阵大笑。【考点】 generate主要用于指产生热或电等。例如:These new boilers generate more heat than the old ones.这些新锅炉产生的热量比旧锅炉多。The machine generates electricity.这部机器发电。

genius--genius n.天才Germany has supplied many great musical geniuses to the world.德国为世界提供了许多伟大的音乐天才。genius n.天才【考点】辨析genius, talent 和gift:genius“天才”, 指先天智力上有创造发明的才能。talent“才能”, 指可加以培养的从事某一工作或活动的能力。gift“天赋”, 指天赋的特殊才能, 但不包含具有创造性或创造能力。例如:He has talent but no genius.他有才能, 但不是天才。She has a gift for drawing pictures.她有绘画的天赋。

gentleman--gentleman n.绅士, 先生He is a gentleman of literary taste.他是一个有文艺鉴赏力的绅士。【考点】 辨析 aristocrat, gentleman和 patrician:这组词均指“出身好或出身高贵的人”的意思。aristocrat现代常指由于出身、血统、称号、财富或世界观而被承认为是最高阶级的人, 尤其是指使自己脱离普通社会生活习俗、习惯的人。如:a struggle between the aristocrats and the plebeians(贵族与平民之间的斗争)。gentleman基本词义表示生于上等家族、有权佩戴盾形纹章、社会等级低于贵族而高于自由平民的人, 其引申义用法很广, 常指一个能文雅、有礼貌地过着安逸生活的人。例如:Somebody has said that a king may make a nobleman, but he cannot make a gentleman.有人说国王可以封一名贵族, 但却不能册封绅士。patrician现代常指出身于高贵的家庭, 有着优良的修养, 脱离平庸和粗俗的人。例如:Patricians tried to set up a political monopoly.贵族们试图独占政权。

get--get v.获得, 得到I got a letter from my sister this morning.今晨我接到妹妹的来信。【考点】(1)get常用于get sb.to do sth.和get sth. done的结构中。在get sb.to do sth.的结构中,get含有“说服”之意;而get sth.done用在某人要求别人为自己做某事的场合。例如:Get her to stay for dinner if you can.你要是能做到, 就劝他留下来吃午饭。You must get my hair cut.我该去理发了。(2)注意下面几个与get有关的短语:get across解释清楚, 使人了解例如:I spoke slowly, but my meaning didn't get across.我讲得很慢, 然而我的意思还是未被理解。Our teacher is intelligent, but not very good at getting his ideas across.我们的老师有学问, 但是不善于让人理解他的想法。get around/round to 找时间做, 开始考虑例如:After a long delay, he got around to writing the letter.耽误了很久以后, 他找到了时间写这封信。Mr. Lee hopes to get around to washing his car next Saturday.李先生希望在下星期六有空洗车。get down to 开始, 着手例如:It's time I got down to some serious work.我该认真做点正事了。Then let us get down to a practical discussion.那么让我们开始实质性的讨论吧。

give--give v.给, 提供;举行;交给;献出;传授He tried to pretend that he wasn't worried, but his shaking hands gave him away.他使劲装着不担心的样子, 但他抖动的双手暴露了真相。【考点】 注意以下几个与give有关的短语:give off 散出, 释放例如:The cooker is giving off a funny smell.锅里冒出一股怪味。The boy's dirty shirt gave off an unpleasant smell.这男孩的脏衬衫散发出难闻的气味。give oneself up 自首, 投降, 投案例如:After a week on the run he gave himself up to the police.他经过一周的逃亡之后去向警察自首了。We must stop him from giving himself up.我们必须阻止他投案自首。give out 分发, 放出例如:The teacher gave out the examination papers.教师把试卷分发了下去。The jessamine gives out a sweet perfume.茉莉花散出芳香。

glance--glance n.匆匆看, 一瞥, 一眼One glance at his face told me he was ill.看一眼他的脸我就知道他病了。【考点】 glance 常用于take/cast a glance at的词组中, 表示“匆匆看一眼”。例如:She cast a glance of surprise at the school inspector before her.她用惊奇的眼光望了一眼面前的督学。

glimpse--glimpse n.一瞥, 瞥见When I saw how worried he was, I had a glimpse of his true feelings.当我看到他是那么焦急的时候, 我窥见到他真实的情感。【考点】 glimpse常用于catch/get a glimpse of的词组中, 表示“瞥见”。例如:I only caught a glimpse of the thief, so I can't really describe him.我只是瞥了一眼小偷,因此无法把他仔细描述。

glitter--glitter v.闪耀 n.光辉, 灿烂All that glitters is not gold.闪亮的东西并非都是黄金。【考点】 辨析 glitter, glare, gleam和 twinkle:glare指太阳等发出的强光;gleam指月亮等发出的微光;glitter 指珠宝、星辰的闪光;twinkle指星星等的闪烁。例如:The sun glared out of the blue sky.太阳在蓝天下光芒四射。The moon gleamed upon the lake.月光映在湖面上。The lights on the distant boats twinkled in the night.远处小船上的灯光在黑夜中闪烁。

go--go v.变为;运行;离去;放置She went red in the face and rushed out angrily.她脸红了, 气乎乎地冲了出去。【考点】 特别泣意go作名词, 有“围棋”之意。例如:Chinese and Japanese players will have a match of go tomorrow.中日选手明天将进行一场围棋比赛。

golden--golden adj.金黄色的;贵重的, 极好的The hall was flooded with warm, golden sunlight.大厅沐浴着温暖的金色阳光。【考点】(1)比较golden与gold:golden是“金黄色的”、“极好的”的意思, 而gold作形容词是“金制的”的意思。因此, 说“金表”、“金牌”等应用gold, 如:gold watch/medal/ring等。(2)汉语“黄金时间”不可直译为“golden time”, 地道的英语应是prime time。例如:It was broadcast on television at prime time.这电视节目在黄金时间播出。

good--good adj.好的, 适合的, 有益的It isn't good for you to have everything you want.要什么就有什么, 这对你没有好处。【考点】 for good 永远例如:We thought they'd come just for a visit, but it seems they're staying for good.我们以为他们只是来短期拜访, 但看来他们要永远住下去了。I've given up smoking for good.我已经永远戒烟了。good for 有效, 适用, 胜任例如:The check is good for 90 days.支票有效期为90天。These tyres are good for another 10, 000 miles.这些轮胎还能跑10000英里。

goods--goods n.商品, 货物This store sells a variety of goods.这家商店卖好多种商品。【考点】 goods 总是以复数形式出现, 作主语时, 谓语动词用复数。例如:The goods were brought around early this morning.今天早上货物到了。

grab--grab v.抓(住)When she was offered work in India, she eagerly grabbed at the chance to travel.当别人向她提供去印度的工作时, 她急切地抓住了这个旅行的好机会。【考点】 辨析 grab, grasp 和 grip:这几个词均有“抓”、“夺”的意思。grab指粗暴而急迫地抓住。例如:He grabbed her arm and pulled her out of the room.他一把抓住她的胳膊, 把她拖出屋去。grasp和grip均侧重于抓紧, 但grip较grasp更有力。例如:I grasped him by the arm.我抓住他的手臂。The frightened boy gripped his mother's arm.那受惊的孩子紧抓住他母亲的手臂。

gracious--gracious adj.亲切的, 客气的She was gracious enough to show us around her home.她有礼貌地带我们参观她家。【考点】 辨析 affable, cordial, genial, gracious, social:这组词均含有在社会交往中令人愉快并平易近人之意。affable是指乐于接近和交谈的性格之意, 常指令人感到亲切、表示友好的意愿。例如:He has a very affable manner.他的态度非常和蔼可亲。cordial 强调的是热情诚恳。如:a cordial welcome(热诚的欢迎);a cordial smile(热诚的微笑)。genial有时强调快活甚至愉快, 但更强调在同伴之中能使大家相当快慰的品性。如:a genial companion(和善的伙伴)。gracious 尤指对下级的宽厚和亲切, 表示亲切时, 其体谅之意多于恩赐。例如:The queen greeted the crowd with a gracious smile.女王以慈祥的笑客向群众致意。sociable表示喜欢他人陪伴、乐于社交, 甚至乐于与陌生人乃至下级进行交往的意愿、爱好。例如:The Smiths are a sociable family.史密斯一家很好交际。

green--green adj.绿的, 青的, 未熟的, 嫩的The fields and woods are very green in the spring.春天的时候田野和森林里一片翠绿。【考点】 注意green的名词复数形式是“蔬菜, 植物”之意。例如:She was washing the greens at the moment.当时她正在洗菜。

greet--greet v.致敬, 敬意, 迎接He greeted me in the street with a friendly wave of his hand.他在街上向我亲切地挥手致意。【考点】 greet作动词, 还有“扑(鼻), 入(耳), 触(目)”之意。例如:The view greeted us at the top of the hill.在山顶上, 景色映入了我们的眼帘。He woke up and was greeted by bird songs.他醒来以后,耳边是鸟儿唱歌的声音。

guard--guard v.守卫, 保卫, 提防The dog guarded the house against the strangers.狗守护着房子防止生人进入。【考点】 on guard 警惕, 防范例如:The citizens were warned to be on guard against a sudden night attack.市民们得到通知, 要提防夜间的突然袭击。Be on your guard against thieves.谨防盗贼。

guess--guess v.&n.推测, 猜测I guess you don't have time to go out now that you have young children.我想你既然有了小孩, 就没时间出去了。【考点】 guess作动词, 还作“认为, 相信”讲。例如:I guess you're feeling tired after your journey.我想你在旅行之后一定感到很疲劳。

guidance--guidance n.引导, 指导The young man sought guidance in the choice of a career.这位年轻人寻求在职业选择方面的指导。【考点】 guidance常用于 under the guidance of的结构中, 表示“在……的指导下”。例如:Funds will be spent under the committee's guidance.基金须在该委员会指导下使用。

guilty--guilty adj.有罪的, 内疚的I have a guilty conscience about for getting to post your letter.忘记为你发信, 我很内疚。【考点】 guilty后面可以跟些不同的介词, 尤其跟of, 表示“犯了某种罪行”, 而接for或about时指“对某事感到内疚”。例如:You have been guilty of serious blunder.你犯了一个大错。I still feel guilty about that error in the accounts.对账上的那个差错,我依然感到内疚。

hail--hail v.欢呼, 欢迎The proposal was hailed with the greatest satisfaction.人们极为满意地欢呼这一提案。【考点】 辨析 greet, hail和 salute:greet指见面时用热情、友好或使人感到愉快的言语或行动对某人表示致意或欢迎。例如:He greeted us by shouting a friendly“hello”。他大声说“喂”, 以此向我们致以友好的问候。hail指以很高荣誉欢迎某人, 但实际上这个词可指任何欢呼或招呼, 并无欢迎之意。例如:His discoveries were hailed as a great step forward in medicine.他的发现受到热情赞扬, 被认为是医学界的一个巨大进步。salute主要用于指敬礼。例如:We salute the flag every day at school.我们每天在学校向国旗致敬。

hair--hair n.头毛, 毛发, 汗毛My hair has grown very long.我的头发长得很长了。【考点】 hair通常用作不可数名词,只有强调几根毛发时才用作可数名词。如:white hair(全白发);a few white hairs(几根白头发)。

half--half n.半, 一半Half of land is cultivated.有一半地耕种了。【考点】 注意half的以下几点用法:(1)half可用在名词之前, 带of或不带of均可, 但在人称代词前总是带of。例如:Half of them are already here.他们有一半的人已经来了。(2)在谈论尺寸和数量时, half后不带of。如:half a mile(半英里);half a bottle(半瓶子)等。(3)在one and a half后跟可数名词的复数形式。如:one and a half hours(一个半小时)。

hang--hang v.悬挂, 垂吊Hang your coat in the closet.把你的外套挂在壁橱里。【考点】 注意以下两个与 hang有关的短语:hang about 闲荡, 徘徊, 逗留例如:He did not like to hang about all day doing nothing.他不喜欢整天闲逛什么事也不干。Don't hang about. We have a train to catch.别再逛了, 我们要赶火车。hang back 犹豫, 踌躇, 畏缩例如:The bridge looked so unsafe that we all hung back in fear.这样看起来很不安全, 因此我们都不敢过桥。She hung back from asking these questions.她犹豫着没有提出那些问题。

harbor--harbor n.避难所, 藏身之处;港口He once lived in the harbor of refuge.他曾在避难所里生活过。【考点】 harbor作动词, 有“隐匿, 窝藏, 包庇”之意。例如:Harboring criminals is an offence under the law.窝藏罪犯是犯法的。The suspect is accused of harboring an escaped convict.那个嫌疑犯被指控窝藏逃犯。

hardly--hardly adv.几乎不, 简直不I could hardly wait to hear the news.我迫不及待地要听新闻。【考点】 注意下面两个短语的含义:hardly any 几乎没有, 几乎什么也不例如:There's hardly any coal left.几乎没有煤了。We have hardly any money left.我们几乎没有什么钱了。hardly…before/when刚……就……例如:We'd hardly arrived before we had to go back.我们刚到那里就往回走。Hardly had we begun our walk when it began to rain.我们刚一举步就下起雨来了。

harmony--harmony n.协调, 和谐There was not much harmony in international affairs during those years.在过去的几年里, 国际事务不很调和。【考点】 harmony常用于 in harmony(with…)中, 表示“与……和平相处”。例如:My cat and dog never fight----they live together in perfect harmony.我的猫和狗从来不打架,它们和睦相处。

hatch--hatch v.孵, 孵出It takes three weeks to hatch hen's eggs.用鸡蛋孵出小鸡需要3周时间。【考点】 hatch作动词, 还有“策划, 图谋”之意。如:hatch a plot (心怀阴谋);hatch up a plot(策划出阴谋)。例如:They hatched a plan to murder the king.他们策划谋杀国王。

hate--hate v.恨, 憎恨;不愿, 不喜欢The two enemies hated each other.这两个仇敌相互憎恨。【考点】 hate表示“不愿, 不喜欢”, 后面既可跟动词不定式, 也可以跟动名词, 或者跟动词不定式或动名词复合结构。例如:I hate asking favours.我不愿请求恩惠。He hates people asking him for money.他不喜欢有人向他要钱。

headquarters--headquarters n.司令部;总部They are going to move their general headquarters to Shanghai.他们打算把总司令部搬到上海。【考点】 headquarters作主语时, 谓语动词可用单数, 也可以用复数。例如:F.B.E. headquarters is/are in Washington D. C.美国联邦调查局总部设在华盛顿。

hear--hear v.听, 听见I was asleep when the telephone rang, so I didn't hear it.电话铃响时我睡着了, 所以我没有听见。【考点】(1)hear表示“听见”后面可跟省略to的动词不定式, 也可跟动名词, 但意义上有区别。跟动名词时强调听到的这一动作的全过程;跟动词不定式时只强调听到的这一动作的一部分。例如:I had never heard her sing like this before. 我以前从来没有听到她这样唱过。I heard the wind blowing.我听到在刮风。(2)hear用于被动语态时, 动词不定式一定要带to。例如:He was never heard to say“thank you”in his life.在他一生中,人们从来没有听到他说过“谢谢你”。

hearing--hearing n.听;听力The speaker had an attentive hearing.发言者受到人们全神贯注的倾听。【考点】 hearing作名词, 还有“审讯”之意。例如:The case is under preliminary hearing.该案件在初步审讯中。

height--height n.高, 高度During the floods the river water rose to the height of the main road beside it.洪水泛滥, 河水涨到河边大路的高度。【考点】 比较 height和 altitude:height指任何能够测量出的, 从某种比较的标准来看, 是高的东西还是低的东西。例如:The tree attains a height of fifty feet.这棵树高达50英尺。altitude指距海平面的垂直距离或角度测量时地平面上的垂直距离, 即“海拔”。例如:The mountain has an altitude of 10, 000 feet.这山高达10000英尺。

help--help n.&v.帮助, 援助Trade helps the development of industry.贸易促进工业的发展。【考点】 注意下面两个短语:can't/couldn't help禁不住, 不得不例如:I can't help feeling that he is stingy.我不禁感到他很小气。I couldn't help crying.我忍不住哭了。help oneself 自取所需(食物等)例如:He's been helping himself to my stationery. 他未经许可一直用我的文具。Help yourself without ceremony.请自用,不要拘礼。

helpful--helpful adj.有帮助的, 有益的, 有用的He's always very helpful to his mother.他一向都是他母亲的得力助手。【考点】 helpful后可以跟介词 to或 in, 接 to时表示“对某人有帮助”, 接in时表示“在某方面有帮助”。例如:He was most helpful in arranging for the doctor to take the clinic over.在安排那位医生接管诊所这件事上他帮了大忙。

hesitate--hesitate v.犹豫, 踌躇If you hesitate too long, you will miss the opportunity.如果你老是犹豫不决, 那就会错失良机。【考点】 hesitate是不及物动词, 后面可跟 over, about等介词短语或动词不定式, 表示“犹豫不决或拿不定主意”。例如:He hesitated over the choice between the two suits.这两套西服选哪一套他犹豫不决。He's still hesitating about whether to join the expedition.他对于是否参加这探险队仍在犹豫。

hide--hide v.隐藏, 躲藏He hid the jewelry under a rock in a courtyard.他把珠宝藏在院内的一块石头下面。【考点】 hide作名词, 有“生皮”、“兽皮”的意思。例如:I'll tan your hide.我要揍你一顿。Cattle are valuable for their hides.牛因其皮而值钱。

highly--highly adv.高度地, 非常;赞许地Walking for walking's sake may be as highly laudable a thing as it is held to be by those who practise it.在那些常常散步的人看来, 为散步而散步可能是值得称道的事。【考点】 highly表示“高度地, 很, 非常”, 多用来修饰形容词或过去分词,而表示“赞许地”多与speak,praise, think等连用。例如:They spoke very highly of him.他们高度赞扬他。

hinder--hinder v.阻止, 妨碍You're hindering me in my work by talking all the time.你一直在说话, 妨碍我的工作。【考点】 hinder常用在 hinder sb. from doing sth. 的结构中, 表示“妨碍某人做某事”。例如:Nothing shall hinder me from accomplishing my purpose.什么也不能阻止我达到目的。That hindered him from going further.这使他不能再继续前进了。

hire--hire v.&n.雇佣, 租借They hire out glassware for parties.他们出租各种聚会用的玻璃器皿。【考点】 辨析charter, hire, let和rent:这组词均含有“租用某物”或“以一定价钱、利率获准使用某物”之意。charter指以合同形式租借, 如:to charter a ship(包租船);totravel in chartered air craft(乘包机旅行)。hire指以一定的价钱使用或拥有某物;let则指以一定协议为归还条件而准许的使用或占有。例如:The shopkeeper hired ten girls for the Christmas rush.店主雇了10名姑娘来应付圣诞节的大忙季节。The room lets for ten thousand dollars a month.此屋月租为1万美元。rent指以付款或实物为代价使用土地及其上面的建筑物。只要强调这个意思, 该词既可指租用也可指出借财产。例如:The college rents these houses only to professors.学院只把这些房子租给教授们。

historical--historical adj.历史的;有关历史的We have no historical evidence for it.我们缺乏可证明这一点的历史根据。【考点】 比较与 historic与 historical:这两个词均有“历史的”之意。但它们在具体用法上是有区别的。historical用来表示历史上存在过或真的发生过的事,而historic表示某事将记载在历史中。如:a historical event(历史事件);a historical character(历史人物);a historic event(历史性事件);a historic town(历史名城)等。

hit--hit v.到达, 完成;一击;碰撞We hit the main road after travelling two miles on a side road.我们在辅路上走了两英里之后, 便开始进入主路。【考点】 hit作名词时, 除有“击, 击中”之意外, 还作“轰动一时的人或事物”、“流行一时的东西”讲。例如:Her new film is quite a hit.她的新影片十分成功。The play was quite a hit in New York.这剧本在纽约曾轰动一时。

hold--hold v.拿着;包含;容纳This cup is too hot for me to hold.这个茶杯太烫了, 我没法拿。【考点】 hold 作动词时, 除以上意思外, 还应特别注意作“举行(会议)”、“有效, 适用”讲。例如:The offer I made to you last week still holds.上星期我向你提供的建议仍然有效。The meeting will be held in the community centre.会议将在社区活动中心举行。

holy--holy adj.圣洁的;神圣的He lives a holy life.他过着圣洁的生活。【考点】 比较holy和sacred:这两个词都表示“神圣的”。holy指内在的神圣本质。例如:Jerusalem is a holy city.耶路撒冷是座圣城。sacred指带有宗教色彩的不可侵犯的神圣。例如:The cat was considered sacred in ancient Egypt.在古埃及,猫被奉为神明之物。

home--home n.家, 家乡 adv.&adj.在家(家乡的)Meanwhile the political situation at home had changed.当时国内的政治局势已经变了。【考点】 注意下面几个短语的含义:at nome在家, 在国内;自在例如:He will be at home to his friend on Friday.他星期五将在家接待客人。The boy didn't feel quite at home in such a house.这个男孩在这样的房子里感到不太自在。be at home in 精通, 熟练例如:He is at home in English.他英语精通到家了。home and abroad国内外例如:October was a month of important happenings at home and abroad.十月份是国内外发生重要事件的一个月。

honor--honor n.尊敬, 敬意I was taught to show honor to my elders.我被教育要尊敬长者。【考点】 注意下面两个与 honor有关的短语:in honor of为纪念, 向……表示敬意例如:They gave a banquet in honor of the visiting Prime Minister.他们举行宴会欢迎来访的总理。His colleagues and former students compiled and publishedhis essays in honor of his thirty years' service with the university.为庆祝他在这所大学工作了30年, 他的同事和过去的学生汇编出版了他的论文。on one's honor以名誉担保例如:On my honor, it is true.我以名誉担保, 这是真的。We promised on our honor not to interfere with his course of action.我们保证不干预他的行动。

horizon--horizon n.地平线The sun rose above the horizon.【考点】 horizon还作“眼界, 见识”讲。例如:The course in philosophy opened the horizons for the students.哲学课打开了学生们的眼界。Meeting new people widened the young man's horizons.结识新朋友开阔了那年轻人的眼界。

hospital--hospital n.医院The young doctor was house surgeon at the local hospital.这位年轻大夫在当地医院当住院外科医生。【考点】 hospital用作抽象意义时, 可作不可数名词, 一般不加冠词。如:go to hospital(去看病); go into hospital(住院); leavehospital(出院)等。例如:He goes to the hospital every day.他每天去医院上班。He goes to hospital.他去看病。

hostage--hostage n.人质The hostage will be kept safe and will be returned when the promises or agreements have been carried out.人质将受到安全保护并在诺言或协议得到履行后被放回。【考点】 take/hold sb.(as a) hostage把某人作为人质例如:The man with the gun took the passengers hostage.那持枪者把乘客扣为人质。One of the bank clerks was held as a hostage.一名银行职员被扣作人质。

hot--hot adj.热的Strike the iron while it is hot.趁热打铁(见机行事)。【考点】 注意hot作形容词时, 还有“急躁的”、“热烈的”、“辣的”之意。例如:The are hot after the treasure.他们急切地要找到那些财宝。The dispute became white hot.争论白热化了。Pepper makes food hot.胡椒使食物变辣。

house--house v.供宿, 给房子住 n.住宅, 机构, 社We can house you the weekend.周末我们可给你提供住宿。【考点】 keep house 管理家务, 做家务例如:She keeps house for us.她替我们管理家务。Since their mother died, Mary keeps house for her father and brother.自从母亲去世以来,玛丽为她父亲和兄弟料理家务。

human--human adj.&n.人(的), 人类(的)This food is not fit for human consumption.这种食物不适合人类食用。【考点】 human作名词时, 也可写成human being, 用来区别于动物。human是可数名词, 其复数形式为词尾加 s。例如:Wolves will not usually attack human.狼不常常袭击人类。This was the beginning of the life of us humans.这是我们人类生命的开始。

hunger--hunger n.渴望;饥饿They all had a hunger for knowledge and new ideas.他们都渴望得到知识和新思想。【考点】 hunger作为动词, 通常只用在 hunger for/after的词组中。例如:A good student hungers after knowledge.好学生渴望获得知识。She hungers after luxury.她渴望奢侈享受。She hungers for his love.她渴望得到他的爱。The miser hungered for gold.那个守财奴渴望得到金子。

ice--ice v.冰冻, 冰镇The hostess iced the watermelon.女主人把西瓜冰镇上了。【考点】 ice over/up(使……)被冰覆盖例如:The lake is iced over during night.夜间湖被冰封起来了。The water pipes are all iced up.水管都被冻了。

identical--identical adj.(to, with)同一的, 同样的So far as untrained eye could tell, the reproduction was identical to the designer's original.以未受过专门训练的人来看, 那复制品和设计家的原作完全相同。【考点】 辨析 equal, equivalent, identical和same:equal“相等的”, 特指“数量, 价值”等相同而言。例如:Their ages are equal.他们的年龄相仿。equivalent“相等的”, 特指“价值, 力”等的相同而言。例如:This sentence is equivalent to that.这句的意思等于那句。identical“同一的”, 最严密的用语。例如:She wore the identical dress on both occasions.她在两种场合都穿同样的服装。same“相同的”, 比 identical较为自由的用语。例如:He is of about the same age as you.他和你的年龄大约相同。

identify--identify v.识别, 鉴别I identified the coat at once, it was my brother's. 我马上就认出了那件大衣,那是我哥哥的。【考点】 identify with把……和……看成一样, 打成一片例如:He was identified with another man.他被误认为另一个人。He identified himself with the masses wherever he went.他每到一地,就和那里的群众打成一片。

ignorant--ignorant adj.无知的, 愚昧的He is so ignorant that he cannot write his own name.他不学无术, 连自己的名字都不会写。【考点】 ignorant常用于 be ignorant of的搭配中, 表示“对……全然不知”, 与 ignore相比, 它没有故意为之的意味。例如:You are not ignorant of the reasons for her behavior.你不是不知道她行为的原因。What his plans are I am quite ignorant of.我一点也不知道他的计划是什么。

ill--ill adj.有病的At length he became very ill.最后他病得很厉害。【考点】(1)ill仅用作表语才能表示“身体不适,生病”,而用作定语就改变了词义,表示“坏的,恶意的”。例如:You ought to apologize and show there is no ill feeling between you.你应当道歉, 表明你们之间并无恶感。(2)ill with患……病例如:She was ill with pneumonia.她患肺炎了。

illness--illness n.病, 疾病A serious illness has prevented her from working for a year.严重的疾病使得她有一年不能工作了。【考点】 比较 disease和 illness:illness是指患病的状态或期间, disease是指具体的某一疾病。如:a chronic disease(一种慢性病); a fatal disease(致命的疾病); die after a long illness(久病而亡)。

impartial--impartial adj.公正的, 无偏见的A judge must be completely impartial.法官必须公正。【考点】 impartial后面常接介词 in和 to。例如:He is impartial in his opinions.他的意见毫无偏见。He is impartial to his students.他对学生一视同仁。

impatient--impatient adj.不耐烦的, 急躁的The teacher is too impatient with slow learners.那位教师对学得慢的人太不耐烦。【考点】 impatient后可以跟不同的介词。be impatient with表示“对某人不耐烦”;be impatient for表示“急于得到或知道某事”;be impatient of表示“对某事情不耐烦”。例如:She is impatient for his arrival.她焦急地等他到来。He was impatient of all this waiting.他等得不耐烦了。Don't be impatient with your children.对孩子们不要急躁。

import--import v.&n.进口, 输入In every country there are people who would like to prevent foreign words from being imported into their language.每个国家都有人想阻止外来语进入本国语言。【考点】 import作名词时, 还有“要旨, 含义”的意思。例如:What is the import of this statement?这项声明的要旨是什么?I don't understand the import of his remarks.我不懂他的话的含义。

impose--impose v.征(税);把……强加于The government would not dare to impose taxes on such necessities as bread or milk.政府不敢对面包牛奶之类生活必需品征税。【考点】 impose…on是 impose的常用结构, 表示“把……强加于”。例如:Don't try to impose your wishes on us.休想把你的意志强加给我们。Don't impose yourself on people who don't want you.不要勉强和不需要你的人在一起。

improve--improve v.好转;改进, 改善The situaiton will not improve by waiting.等待不会使情况好转。【考点】 improve on 改进例如:Your complexion is wonderful; don't try to improve on nature.你的面色好得很, 不要企图改变天生的本色。The German girl improved on her previous best performance in the 100 metres.那个德国姑娘在100米比赛中刷新了自己以往最好的成绩。

improvement--improvement n.改进, 进步, 增进, 改进措施He more than any other single person is instrumental in effecting the improvement.在实现这些改进措施方面, 他比其他任何人起的作用都大。【考点】 improvement通常和介词 in连用, 表示“在某方面的改进”, 只有进行两种情况的比较时才能接介词on。例如:The new work procedure is a great improvement on the old one.新工序比起老工序来是一个很大改进。There is much improvement in your style.你的文体有很大进步。

impulse--impulse v· &n.推动;冲动He played a very important part in impulsing the development of the friendly relation between the two countries.他在推动两国之间的友好关系的发展中起了非常重要的作用。【考点】 on(the) impulse(of)凭……(的)冲动例如:A woman acts more on impulse than a man does.女人比男人更容易凭冲动行事。On impulse, I picked up the phone rang my sister in Australia.我当时心血来潮, 拿起话筒就给澳大利亚的妹妹打了个电话。

inaccessible--inaccessible adj.(to)达不到的The island is inaccessible except by boat.除了乘船, 否则是无法去这个小岛的。【考点】 inaccessible后面常与 to连用, 表示“达不到”, 其中to是介词, 不是动词不定式的标记。例如:His busy schedule made him completely inaccessible to hisstudents.他的时间排得很满, 学生根本无法和他接触。The library was inaccessible to the labouring people before liberation.解放前, 这个图书馆劳动人民是进不去的。

increase--increase v.&n.增进Drinking and smoking among young people is increasing to an alarming extent.青年人中饮酒抽烟的现象已发展到惊人的程度。【考点】 比较 increase和 enlarge:increase“增加”, 可以用于距离、面积、力量、程度、价值等方面的增加。例如:The number of the sick was increasing with appalling rapidity.病员的数量正以惊人的速度增加。enlarge“增大”, 特别指在广度(extent)、范围(area)和大小(size)等方面的增大, 不能用于指重量、速度、时间等。例如:I have to enlarge my vocabulary.我必须扩大自己的词汇量。

indeed--indeed adv.真正地, 当然;确实, 实在The machine is up-to-date indeed.这台机器确实是最新式的。【考点】 indeed常用于加强“very+adj./adv.”的意义, 即用于“very+adj./adv.+indeed”的结构中, 没有very便不能用indeed。例如:I was very sad indeed to hear about it.我听到这件事确实非常难过。Thank you very much indeed.确实非常感谢你。

independent--independent adj.独立的, 自主的A wife can have property independent of her husband.妻子可以拥有不受丈夫支配的财产。【考点】 注意表达“独立于……之外”、“不受……的支配”时, in dependent后接介词 of, 即 independent of, 但在 independence的后面必须接 from, 即 independence from 同样表达该意。此外, 表达“依靠”、依附”之意时,depend/dependence/dependent后面都必须接on或upon。例如:The American colonies became independent of England.美国殖民地脱离英国独立了。India gained independence from Britain in 1947.印度在1947年脱离英国获得独立。He depends on you to help him.他指望你的帮助。He lives in dependence on his parents.他依靠父母生活。

indifferent--indifferent adj.冷淡的, 不关心的, 不积极的We should be warm towards our comrades, not cold and indifferent.对同志要满腔热忱, 不能冷冷淡淡, 漠不关心。【考点】 indifferent与different毫无联系, 它常与to连用, 表示“对……漠不关心”。例如:He was so indifferent to his personal appearance.他从来不在意自己的外表。I was so excited to see snow that I was indifferent to thecold.我看到雪极兴奋,冷也不在意了。

indulge--indulge v.放纵;放任;沉迷He indulged his children too much.他太放纵他的孩子们了。【考点】 indulge oneself in sth./doing sth. 过度……;沉迷于例如:My father indulges himself in smoking.我父亲过度抽烟。He indulged in conversation and drink at the party.他在宴会上纵情地畅谈与畅饮。

industry--industry n.工业, 产业The coal industry once flourished remarkably in the country.这个国家的煤炭工业一度很兴旺发达。【考点】 注意 industry还作“勤奋, 勤劳”讲。例如:The small potato patches are scratched with heroic industry in hard rock.那小块马铃薯地是用超人的勤劳从石缝中开出来的。A country's greatest wealth is the industry of its people.人民的勤劳是一个国家最大的财富。

inform--inform v.通知, 告诉, 报告I hope you will keep us informed of how you are getting on with the work.希望你们不断把工作进展情况告诉我们。【考点】 inform后常接介词on或against, 意为“告发, 告密”, 相当于 tell on。例如:One of the criminals informed against the rest of the gang.有一罪犯告发了同党。He went to the police and informed on the criminals.他去了警察局,并告发了罪犯。

information--information n.通知, 报告;信息For your information, the library is on the first floor.谨奉告, 图书馆在二楼。【考点】 注意information还作“情报”、“消息”讲。例如:The police don't have enough information to catch the criminal.警察没有掌握捉拿罪犯的足够情报。How did you get your information?你的消息是怎么得来的?

inquire--inquire v.询问, 打听;调查“How are you? ”she inquired.“你好吗?”她问。【考点】inquire/enquire用作及物动词或不及物动词均可, 用作不及物动词时, 常和介词of或about连用, 跟介词of, 表示“询问(某人)”, 而跟介词 about, 意思是“询问(某事或某人的情况)”。例如:She inquired of me most politely whether I wished to continue. 她非常有礼貌地问我是否想继续下去。Have you inquired about trains to London?你查询到伦敦的车次了吗?

insist--insist v.坚决要求, 坚决主张, 坚持They insisted on my staying there for supper.他们一定要留我在那儿吃饭。【考点】 insist用作不及物动词时, 常与介词 on或 upon连用, 其宾语可以是名词或动名词。如果insist后面跟从句时, 是及物动词, 而且从句的谓语动词一般都用虚拟语气, 即“(should)+动词原形”。例如:He insist on his innocence.他坚持认为自己无罪。I insist that you take immediate action to put this right.我坚决要求你立刻采取行动把事情处理好。

inspire--inspire v.鼓舞, 激起I was inspired to work harder.我受到鼓舞, 工作更加努力。【考点】 inspire作动词, 还有“使产生灵感”之意。例如:The Lake District Scenery inspired Words worth to write his greatest poetry.湖区的美景给了华兹华斯灵感而创作出他伟大的诗篇。His best music was inspired by the memory of his mother.对母亲的回忆启发他创作了他最好的音乐。

instant--instant adj.(食品)速溶的, 方便的;立即的, 直接的;紧迫的Please help to buy me some instant coffee when you go shopping.你去买东西时请帮我买点速溶咖啡。【考点】 instant 可与定冠词the连用, 起连接作用, 引导状语从句, 表示“一……就”。例如:She must have dashed out the instant I grabbed the phone.她必定是在我一抓住电话时便冲了出去。

instead--instead adv.代替, 顶替The watt is a small unit of power so that we use the kilowatt instead.瓦特是小功率的单位, 因此我们用千瓦代之。【考点】 instead of表示代替后者或对后者进行否定, 可以跟名词、代词、动名词、形容词、介词短语、副词, 但不跟从句。例如:I should at school instead of lying here in bed,我应该去上学, 而不应该躺在这儿睡大觉。Will you go to the party instead of me?你能替我去参加聚会吗?

intelligence--intelligence n.智力, 聪明, 理解力These magnificent ancient buildings demonstrate the great intelligence of the labouring people.这些壮丽的古代建筑显示了劳动人民的高度智慧。【考点】 注意 intelligence还有“情报, 报导”之意。例如:Our intelligence show that the enemy is advancing.情报表明敌人正在前进。

intend--intend v.想要, 打算, 企图He never intended to use this method.他从来没有兴趣使用这种方法。【考点】 intend作为及物动词, 后面可跟的结构很丰富, 可以是动词不定式、that从句、动名词、动词不定式复合结构等。例如:I intend coming back soon.我想很快会回来。We intend that he shall set out at once.我们打算要他立即出发。

interfere--interfere v.干涉, 干预;妨碍, 打扰Don't interfere in matters that do not concern you!不要干预与你无关的事!【考点】 interfere 是不及物动词, 跟宾语时须先接介词in或with, 但所接介词不同, 意思也不一样, 特别注意它们之间的区别。interfere in表示“干涉, 干预”;interfere with表示“妨碍, 打扰”的意思。例如:Do not interfere in other people's business.少管闲事。This noise is interfering with my work.这嘈杂声妨碍我的工作。

interpret--interpret v.口译;解释, 说明He quickly interpreted to me what the Russian was saying.他很快把那个俄国人说的话口译给我听。【考点】 interpret…as表示“把……理解为或解释为”, 是常用结构。例如:I interpret his answer as a refusal.我认为他的答复是个拒绝。He interpreted the silence as contempt.他把沉默看作轻蔑的表示。

interval--interval n.间隔, 间歇The interval between two trees measures 40 feet. 【考点】 at intervals 不时, 时时例如:It snowed at intervals this week.这星期不时下雪。He comes back to see us regularly at intervals.他每隔一段时间就回来看我们。

invent--invent v.发明, 创造Nearly two thousand years have passed since the Chinese first invented the compass.自从中国人最先发明指南针以来, 已过了近2000年。【考点】 invent作动词, 还作“捏造, 虚构”讲。例如:Use an invented name, such as A town, not a real one.瞎编个名字吧, 比方叫“A城”, 别用真名。The whole story was invented.整个故事都是虚构的。

iron--iron n.烙铁, 熨斗;铁Materials are all washable and non or minimum iron.料子可以洗, 但勿用熨斗熨, 或尽可能少熨。【考点】 iron 作动词有“熨衣”、“熨平”之意。例如:I prefer to iron my skirts while they are still damp.我喜欢在衬衫尚未干的时候熨烫。This material irons well.这种料子很好烫平。

itself--itself pron.它自己, 它自身The wounded horse could not raise itself from the ground.受伤的马自己站不起来了。【考点】 注意下面两个与itself有关的短语:by itself 独自, 独身例如:Put it by itself.把东西单独放起来。The statue stands by itself in the square.广场上孤零零地立着这座雕像。in itself 本身例如:This novel is a history in itself.这本书本身就是一部历史。The fair is in itself a symbol of the development of China's foreign trade.这次贸易本身就是中国对外贸易发展的象征。

jump--jump v.&n.跳跃, 跳动The children were jumping up and down.孩子们兴奋地跳来跳去。【考点】 jump作名词时, 还有“暴涨, 猛增”之意。例如:In May there was a considerable jump in sales.5月份的销售额有相当大的增长。The company's results show a high jump in profits.公司的结算显示利润大增。

junior--junior n.年少者;晚辈;下级 adj.年少的, 较年幼的I'm your junior in years, but very much your senior in service.我年龄虽比你小, 但服役时间却比你长得多。【考点】 junior作形客词, 表示“比……年少”时, 后不能与than连用, 而必须跟介词to。例如:He is several years junior to Mrs. Cooper.他比库珀太太小几岁。My sister is three years junior to me.我妹妹比我小3岁。

kid--kid n.小孩, 儿童The kids had a good time at the party.孩子们在宴会上玩得快活极了。【考点】 kid还可作动词, 意为“戏弄、取笑”。例如:Don't kid me; I know you are not telling the truth.别骗我, 我知道你没说实话。He's not really hurt; he's only kidding.他并没有真受伤,他只不过开个玩笑。

kill--kill v.杀死, 破坏;毁掉Cancer kills thousands of people every year.每年有数以千计的人死于癌症。【考点】 注意 kill还有“消磨(时间)”之意。例如:The train was very late, so we killed time by playing cards.由于火车晚点很多, 我们打牌以消磨时间。While waiting for the train he killed time by going for a walk.在等火车的时候,他以散步来消磨时光。

knock--knock v.&n.敲, 敲打;碰撞The boy ran out of the room and knocked into his father.那男孩跑出房间正好撞在他父亲身上。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:knock down 撞倒, 击倒例如:She was knocked down by a bus.她被公共汽车撞倒了。With one blow he knocked his opponent down.他一拳把对手打倒。knock out 击倒, 击昏例如:The boxer knocked out his opponent in the second round.拳击手在第二回合时将对手击倒。Joe knocked him out with one punch.乔一拳将他击昏。

label--label n.标签 v.贴标签于When travelling you should put labels on your luggage.旅行时你应该在你的行李上贴上标签。【考点】 label…as…把……称为例如:The phrase is labelled as slang in the dictionary.这一短语在字典里被标明为俚语。He was labelled as a communist.他被人们称作是共产主义者。

labor--labor v.劳动, 苦于I've been laboring over a hot stove all morning.我一上午都在热炉子前忙个不停。【考点】 labor the point 细说, 啰唆地说例如:Although we all knew what the difficulty was, he wasted time laboring the point.尽管大家都知道困难之所在,他还是浪费时间啰嗦不休。

lack--lack v.&n.缺乏Large masses of the people lack the basic necessities of life.大多数人缺乏生活必需品。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:be lacking in 缺乏(某种品质、特点), 不够……例如:Jane seemed lacking in enthusiasm when he told her of invitation.当他告诉简这一邀请时, 她似乎缺乏热情。lack for 缺(多用于否定句)例如:As he is very rich he lacks for nothing.因为他很富有,他什么也不缺。

lag--lag v.&n.落后, 滞后The small by soon became tired and lagged far behind.那个小男孩不久就走不动了, 远远地落在了后面。【考点】 lag 常和 behind连用, 表示“落在了后面”, 如引出某个方面时, 介词用in。例如:Their country lags behind others in space exploration.他们国家在宇宙空间探索方面落后于其他国家。The lame child lagged behind.那破足的孩子落在了后面。

language--language n.语言She reads French language quite well, but doesn't speak it.她能很好地用法文阅读, 就是不会讲。【考点】 比较language, speech 和 tongue:language“语言”, 最普通的用语。例如:How many foreign language do you speak?你能说几种外语?speech“语言”, 正式用语, 含有“有音节的语言’(articulate utterance)的意味, 指人类独有的语言, 不能指动物的语言。实际上, 它和language常互相替用。例如:He was cold and reserved in manner, stiff and formal in speech.他冷漠、寡言, 语言生硬、刻板。tongue“语言, 国语”的意思, 与language相当, 是诗语言和正式场合用语。如今变为文学用语, 指一国或民族的 speech 或 language。例如:He speaks nothing but his mother-tongue.母语之外他什么语都不会说。

law--law n.法律, 法令, 法规By law a general election had to be held not later than October.根据法律, 大选必须在十月份之前举行。【考点】 注意law还作“法则, 规律, 定律”讲。例如:Newton's law of motion forms the foundation of classical mechanics.牛顿的运动定律构成传统力学的基础。They did not understand the laws which govern the development of society.他们不理解支配社会的规律。

least--least adv.&adj.最少(的);最小(的)He disliked many of his teachers and Miss Smith he liked the least.很多老师他都不喜欢, 最不喜欢的是一个女老师史密斯。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:at least 至少, 最低限度例如:She may be slow but at least she's reliable.她迟钝是迟钝, 但无论如何她很可靠。You might at least say you are sorry.你至少也该说一声抱歉。in the least 一点, 丝毫例如:They don't in least understand this.他们一点也不理解这事。He didn't seem to be in the least shocked or frightened.他似乎一点也没有被震惊或惊吓。

leave--leave v.留下;离开;交付Now she was left alone with her little child.现在只剩下她和她的小孩在一起了。【考点】 注意 leave作名词, 意思是“许可”、“准假”、“假期”。例如:You have my leave to stay away from the office tomorrow.我准许你明天不上班。I'm spending my next leave in Greece.我下一次将去希腊度假。

leisure--leisure n.空闲;安逸We've been working all week without a moment's leisure.我们整个星期一直工作, 没有片刻空闲。【考点】 at leisure 从容地, 有空例如:I'll take the report home and read it at leisure.我把报告带回家去慢慢看。They're seldom at leisure.他们难得清闲。

lend--lend v.借给, 贷款The banks are lending money at a competitive rate of interest.银行竞相以低利率贷款。【考点】 lend itself to 适宜于, 对……有利例如:The rural environment lent itself to the restoration of his health.农村环境有助于他恢复健康。The music doesn't lend itself to dancing.这音乐不适合跳舞。

length--length n.长度;程度;范围We walked the length of the street.我们从街的这端走到街的另一端。【考点】 at length 终于, 最后;详细地例如:At length the bus arrived forty minutes late.公共汽车终于来了, 晚了40分钟。He went on at tedious length about his favourite bobby.他仍不厌其烦,详细地讲他的业余爱好。

less--less adv.&adj.更少地(的), 更小地(的)The next train will be less crowded than this one.下班火车不会像这班火车这样拥挤。【考点】 no less than 不少于, 不亚于;和……一样例如:We won no less than £500 in a competition.我们在一场比赛中赢了多达500英镑。She is no less active than she used to be.她和从前一样活跃。

lesson--lesson n.课程;功课Children study many different lesson in school.孩子们在学校学习各种各样的课程。【考点】 注意 lesson 作名词, 还当“教训”讲。例如:History affords us lessons that merit attention.历史给我们提供了值得注意的教训。He had learned his lesson and wouldn't repeat the mistake.他吸取了教训,不会再犯那种错误。

level--level n.水平;等级He had to cut his ordinary expenses down to the lowest level.他不得不把日常开支削减到最低水平。【考点】 注意 level作动词, 意为“弄平, 铺平”。例如:The ground should be levelled before you plant lawn.先把地平整好再植草坪。The site must be levelled before it is built upon.在建房前必须把房场整平。

liable--liable adj.有责任(义务)的;易于……的All his property is liable to pay his debts.他所有的财产都应依法处理以偿债务。【考点】 注意下面两个短语的含义:liable for表示“应负责任”的意思, 主要指根据法律或规定应对某事负责。例如:Is a wife liable for her husband's debt?妻子对丈夫的债务负法律责任吗?He is liable for all the damage done by his workmen.他的工人们所造成的一切损失应由他赔偿。liable to 易得(病);可能会受到(惩罚)例如:This road is liable to frost damage.这条路容易冻坏。People who walk on the grass are liable to a fine of 5 dollars.践踏草坪可能会被罚款5美元。

lie--lie v.躺下, 平放, 位于;说谎He lay till evening without moving, without even thinking.他躺到天黑, 没有动, 甚至也没有想。【考点】 比较lie in和exist on:这两个词组都表示“存在于”, lie in后面多跟抽象名词;exist on后面跟具体名词。例如:The fundamental way out for agriculture lies in mechanization.农业的根本出路在于机械化。The patient existed on liquid food.这个病人靠吃液体食物生存。

lift--lift v.(使)升起, 吊起Three men were lifted by helicopter from the burning ship.直升飞机把3个男人从燃烧着的船上吊起。【考点】 lift作动词, 还有“(使云、雾等)消散”之意。例如:The mist began to lift.雾开始消散。With the rain, the smog lifted from the city.这个城市的雾随雨消散殆尽。

light--light n.光亮;灯光, 光源Far below the plane we could see the lights of London.从飞机上俯视远处可以看到伦敦的万家灯火。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:in the light of 按照, 根据例如:We should review the proposals in the light of past experience.我们应该按照老经验来评价那些建议。Please analyse it in the light of the principles discussed. 请根据讨论的原则分析它。throw/cast light on/upon 使明白, 阐明例如:Illustrations throw light upon the text.插图有助于理解正文。The president promised to throw more light on his new fis cal policies.总统答应对他的新财政政策做更多的说明。

likely--likely adj.很可能, 有希望的It seems likely that she'll pass the exams.看起来她有可能通过考试。【考点】 likely 与 probable在意思上很相似, 但用法上稍有区别。首先, likely 可用于不定式结构中,但probable不行。其次,likely的主语可以是人,也可以是物,尤其是it, 而probable的主语不能指人。

limitation--limitation n.限制, 局限性It would exceed the limitation of the article if discussed adequately.如果充分讨论, 那就会超出这篇文章的范围。【考点】 辨析 limit和 limitation:limit和limitation均可作名词, 均有“限制, 局限”之意, 但limit 指有形或无形的东西(如智力、时间、权力、议论、都市、欲望等)的限制;而limitation 则着重强调“能力的局限性或缺陷”。例如:We must set a limit to the expense of the trip.我们必须对旅行的费用定一限度。That fence is the limit of the school field.那个围栏是学校场地的界线。His bad eyesight is a limitation. 近视便是一个缺陷。

live--live v.生活;居住;过(生活)The doctors don't think he will live through the night.医生认为他活不过今晚了。【考点】(1)注意live作形容词时, 意为“活的”、“实况播送的”。例如:The cat was playing with a live mouse.这只猫在跟一只活老鼠玩。It wasn't a recorded show; it was live.那不是表演的录像, 而是现场直播。(2)注意与 live有关的几个短语:live on/by 靠……生活, 以……为食例如:How can he manage to live on that pension?他靠那点养老金怎能生活?Hones men live by the sweat of their brow.诚实的人靠自己辛勤劳动生活。live through 度过, 经受过例如:He had lived through the most? years of the depression.他已度过了最辛苦的萧条年代。live up to 做到, 不辜负例如:You must live up to your promise.你必须实现你的诺言。Did the film live up to your expectations?这部电影达到你期望的标准了吗?

load--load adj.负荷, 负担The lorry was carrying a load of sand.卡车运了一车沙子。【考点】 比较 load 与 burden:load指船或车上的负荷, 亦指人或动物的负荷, 如:一车木材、一担干草等都叫load;用作比喻时, load 比 burden的语气要强些。burden重担,指生物所负的重担,常被用作比喻的意味,作“责任”等解。

lose--lose v.输;丢失;迷路It's only the second time the team has lost a match this season.那仅仅是本赛季该队第二次失利而已。【考点】 lose作动词, 还特指“(钟表)走慢”的意思, 与gain相对。例如:My watch is losing three minutes a day.我的表每天慢3分钟。A good watch neither gains nor loses.一块好表既不会走快也不会走慢。

loss--loss n.损失;遗失, 丢失The volcanic eruption caused enormous losses.火山爆发造成了巨大损失。【考点】 at a loss 困惑, 不知所措例如:Her statement left me completely at a loss.她的话使我完全困惑。I certainly tried to explain his ideas but I am still at a loss to see his points.我当然想把他的观点解释清楚,可是我仍然不明白他的主要意思。

love--love n.爱, 热爱She is a teacher in love with her profession.她是个热爱自己职业的教师。【考点】 fall in love with 和……相爱, 爱上例如:What are you going to do if he falls in love with another woman?如果他爱上了另一个女人, 你怎么办呢?She fell in love with the house as soon as she saw it.她一看到那所房子就爱上了它。

make--make v.做, 制做They were busy making artificial flowers.他们正忙着做花。【考点】 注意be made of 与 be made from 均有“由……制成”之意, 但它们的具体用法不同。当原材料在成品中容易看出其原来的样子时, 就用 be made of;如果原材料在成品中完全改变了原来的模样时, 就用 be made from。例如:The bag is made of leather.这包是用皮革做的。Bricks are made from clay.砖是用粘土制成的。(2)注意make与brand的区别:这两个词都有“商标”、“牌子”的意思。但make是指较贵重物品(如汽车、洗衣机、电冰箱等)的牌子;而brand是指较小的东西(如香烟、牙膏、香皂等物品)的牌子。如:a foreign make of car(一辆外国牌号的汽车);a new brand of cigarettes(一种新牌子的香烟)。

manage--manage v.经营, 处理;设法;操纵It is not easy to manage a large enterprise.管理一个大企业是不容易的。【考点】 注意 manage to do sth.表示“设法做到某事”, 含有实现了其努力目标的意思。如果没有实现, 只能用 try to do sth. (努力做某事)。例如:We managed to complete the task without any help.我们设法在没有任何帮助的情况下完成了任务。Try to get here early.请尽量早一点来。

many--many adj.许多的, 多的There are too many mistakes in this essay.这篇文章错误太多。【考点】 注意下面的几个短语的含义:a great/good many 许多, 大量例如:On our way to the hotel, I asked him a good many questions.在我们去旅馆的路上, 我问了他许多问题。A great many of the beggers were blind.许多乞丐都是瞎子。many a“许多的”, 注意“many a+可数名词的单数”表示“许多”, 尽管是复数含义, 但句子的谓语动词必须用单数形式。例如:Many a ship has been wrecked on those rocks.许多船在那些岩石上撞得破烂不堪。Many a man would have run away, but he didn't.许多人都会逃跑的, 而他却没有。

mark--mark v.&n.做记号;批改 n.痕迹;记号The route has been marked so that it is easy to follow.这条路线已标有记号, 很容易跟着走。【考点】 注意mark time表示“原地踏步”、“停止不前”、“拖延时间”的意思。例如:The soldiers marked time for a few seconds and then moved towards the lorries.士兵们原地踏步了几秒钟, 然后走向卡车。Our business Is marking time.我们的企业停止不前了。

market--market n.销路;市场There's no market for such goods.这种货物没有销路。【考点】 on the market表示“(货物)出售”的意思。例如:These computers are not yet on the market.这些计算机还未上市。This house will probably come on the market next month.这幢房子可能下个月要出售。

mean--mean v.意指;意欲, 打算What do these symptoms mean?这些征兆意味着什么?【考点】 注意 mean作形容词时, 有“卑鄙的”、“吝啬的”、“低劣的”之意。例如:That was a mean trick!那是卑鄙的伎俩!Her husband is so mean about money!她丈夫对钱十分吝啬。The shoes were of mean quality.这些鞋质量低劣。

means--means n.方法, 手段The novel remains now the favourite means of expression for the bulk of imaginative writers.小说仍是大多数富于想象力的作家最喜欢运用的表现手段。【考点】(1)means 无论单复数都是同一种形式,如果是单数概念,谓语动词就用单数,如果是复数概念,谓语动词就用复数。(2)表示“尽一切努力”, 应该说 by all possible means, 而不是 by all means(当然可以)。(3)by no means表示“决不”, 放在句首时,句子的主谓要部分倒装。

medicine--medicine n.内服药;医学, 药剂There is no medicine for curing a fool.笨人无药可医。【考点】 比较 medicine, drug 和 chemicals:medicine常指“内服药”;drug 常指“麻醉药或催眠剂”、“毒品”;chemicals是用于森林、庄稼、花卉的农药。例如:This is a good medicine for colds.这是治感冒的好药。Doctors use drugs to relieve their patient's pains.医生用麻醉剂来减轻病人的痛苦。The gardeners use various chemicals to protect the flowers.花匠用各种农药来保护这些花。

memory--memory n.记忆, 记忆力;回忆She has an extraordinary memory for figures.她对数字有非凡的记忆力。【考点】 in memory of 纪念例如:They are going to erect a monument in memory of the dead.他们将竖碑纪念死者。He founded the charity in memory of his late wife. 他兴办那项慈善事业以纪念他已故的妻子。

mercy--mercy n.仁慈, 怜悯, 宽恕They show mercy to their enemies.他们对敌人很仁慈。【考点】 at the mercy of 在……的支配下例如:Primitive man was at the mercy of his environment.原始人受环境的支配。They were lost at sea, at the mercy of wind and weather.他们在海上迷失了方向, 任凭海风和天气摆布。

message--message n.消息, 信息, 通讯There's a message for you from your brother.你兄弟给你捎了个口信。【考点】 注意message 还有“启示”、“要旨”之意。例如:The new play is short on humor and long on message.这个新剧幽默不够, 但寓意深长。Have you caught the message of this book?你领会了这本书的要旨了吗?

meter--meter n.米, 公尺The mountain is more than 5, 000 meters high.这座山高5, 000多米。【考点】 meter 还有“仪表, 计表”之意。如:a gas meter(煤气表);a water meter(水表); a parking meter(停车计时表)。例如:What is the accurate reading of the electric meter?电表的精确读数是多少?

midst--midst n.中间, 当中I saw him in the midst of the crowd. 我在人群中看见了他。【考点】 比较 in the midst of 和 in the middle of:这两个短语都表示“在……中间”, 但所强调的侧面不同。 inthe midst of强调的是“中间”过程;而in the middle of强调的是“中间”位置。例如:They departed in the midst of a heavy rain.他们在滂沱大雨中离去。In the middle of each atom there is a nucleus.每个原子中间都有一个原子核。

mild--mild adj.温和的;温暖的He has too mild a nature to get angry, even if he has good cause.他的性格太温和了, 不会生气的, 即使他有充足的理由也不生气。【考点】 mild作形容词, 还有“(烟、酒)味淡的”、“(冶金上)低碳的, 软的”的意思。例如:I only smoke mild cigars.我只抽味道淡的雪茄。

mind--mind v.&n.介意, 反对 n.头脑;想法, 心情Would you mind if I went home early?我早点回家你反对吗?【考点】 注意mind作动词, 还有“任意, 留心”之意。例如:Mind my bike while I go into the shop, please.请帮我照看一下自行车, 我到商店去。Could you mind the phone for five minutes?你能替我守5分钟电话吗?

mine--mine n.矿山, 矿井That territory was full of coal mines. 那个地区到处都是煤矿。【考点】 mine作动词, 有“采矿”、“布雷”之意。例如:Gold is mined from deep under ground.黄金是从地下深处开采出来的。All the roads leading to the city has been mined.通往这座城市的所有道路均已敷设地雷。

miniature--miniature adj.微型的, 缩小的A miniature camera is smaller than a match box.微型相机比火柴盒小。【考点】 miniature作名词, 意为“缩小的模型”、“缩图”。例如:She showed a miniature of Georgia.她把一张乔治娅的小型图像拿给我看。In the museum there is a miniature of the ship Mayflower.博物馆里陈列着“五月花号”船的缩小模型。

minute--minute n.一会儿;分钟Sit down by me just a minute, will you?在我身旁坐一会儿, 好吗?【考点】(1)注意minute作名词, 还作“会议记录”讲, 此时, 多为复数形式出现。例如:The minutes of a meeting are the notes of what happened.会议记录是对发生过的事所做的记录。(2)minute作形容词, 意为“微小的”、“详细的”。例如:His writing's so minute that it's difficult to read.他的字体太小了, 很难看懂。The detective studied the fingerprints in the minutest detail. 那侦探仔仔细细地研究了每个指纹。(3)the minute(that)可以引出一个状语从句, 表示“—……就”。例如:I want to see him the minute that he arrives.他一来我就要见他。

miss--miss v.错过, 未击中;想念, 怀念When he couldn't come to the party he thought he was missing out on something,but he wasn't really, because it wasn't very enjoyable.当他不能来参加晚会时他认为他会错过好机会, 可是他并未错过什么, 因为晚会并不有趣。【考点】 miss the boat(bus)(行动迟缓)错过机会, 坐失良机例如:Mr. Brown missed the boat when he decided not to buy the house.布朗先生决定不买那套房子, 其实他是在坐失良机。In college he didn't study hard enough so he missed the boat and failed to pass.在大学他学习不够用功,结果坐失良机考试没及格。

mistake--mistake v.&n.弄错, 把……误认为 n.错误, 过失He'd mistaken the address and gone to the wrong house.他弄错了地址, 找错了人家。【考点】(1)mistake 常与介词for连用,表示误将某人或某物认作他人或他物。例如:I mistook him for his brother.我把他误认成他兄弟了。(2)by mistake 错误地例如:She put salt into her tea by mistake.她错把盐放进茶里。I took your umbrella by mistake.我错拿了你的雨伞。

mock--mock v.嘲笑, 讥笑They mocked at my hesitation.他们嘲笑我的犹豫。【考点】 mock 作形容词, 有“仿制的”、“模拟的”之意。例如:He spoke to her in a mock serious manner.他以一种假正经的态度跟她说话。The army training exercises ended with a mock battle.军队演习以一场模拟战斗结束了。

modest--modest adj.谦虚的, 谦逊的She's very modest about her success and says that it's just the result of good luck.她对自己的成功很谦虚, 说这些只不过是靠运气好。【考点】 比较 modest和demure:二者均为形容词, 有“谦逊的”、“矜持的’的意思。modest强调合宜的、正当的行为, 没有自大自夸的态度。例如:I like a modest girl, who is neither shy nor loud.我喜欢一个态度谦虚的女孩, 她既不害羞, 又不大声说话。demure现在主要指矫揉造作的谦逊, 或假装的害羞, 以期能够吸引人的注意。例如:She sipped her soda and looked demure.她吸着苏打水,摆出一副假端庄的样子。

momentary--momentary adj.片刻的, 瞬时的Her feeling of fear was only momentary; it soon passed.她的恐惧是短暂的, 很快就消失了。【考点】 比较momentary和momentous:这两个词都是由moment 派生来的形容词, 但含义却大不相同。momentary的意思是“暂时的, 短暂的(temporary)”, 常用作前置定语。例如:They can only secure momentary happiness.他们只能获得暂时的幸福。There was a momentary lull in the storm and then the rain started again.风暴稍停了一下, 接着又下起雨来。momentous的意思是“重大的, 重要的(important)”, 可用作前置定语或表语。例如:Some momentous decisions will be taken at the next conference.下次会议将做出几项重要的决定。I have some momentous news to tell you.我有重要的消息要告诉你。

monitor--monitor n.班长;监视器Our monitor is a good organizer.我们的班长是一个优秀的组织者。【考点】 monitor作动词, 意为“监控”、“监测”。例如:They didn't know that their talks were being monitored.他们不知道有人在监听他们的谈话。This machine can monitor a patient's pulse.这台机器能监测病人的脉搏。

moral--moral adj.道德上的, 道义上的I don't think you have any right to make moral judgement about me.我认为你没有任何权利对我做道德上的判断。【考点】 moral作名词, 意为“寓意, 教育意义”。例如:The moral of the story is“Look before you leap”.这故事的寓意是“三思而后行”。There is more than one moral to be drawn from this story.从这个故事中可以汲取多种教益。

more--more adv·&adj.更多(的)His illness was much more serious than the doctor first thought.他的病比医生当时估计的要严重得多。【考点】 no more than 不过, 仅仅, 和……一样不例如:He is no more than a policeman.他不过是个警察。The whale is no more a fish than the horse is.如同马一样,鲸鱼也不是鱼。

most--most n.多数, 大部分 adv.&adj.最多(的)Most of her arguments were founded on fact.他的论点大部分是以事实为根据的。【考点】 make the most of 充分利用例如:You have only a short holiday, so make the most of it.你只有很短的假期, 所以要善于利用这段时间。In both work and study we ought to make the most of our time.不论工作或学习,我们都应该尽量利用时间。

motion--motion n.运动, 行动Babies watch people's motions carefully.婴儿对大人的行动观看得很仔细。【考点】 motion 作名词或动词均有“提议, 建议”之意, 此时, 无论是宾语从句或是同位语从句中的谓语动词均用虚拟形式, 即(should)+ 动词原形”。例如:I had a motion that we stop and rest a while.我提议我们停下来休息一会儿。The elder man motioned that I should sit in it.那位老人示意我坐在那里面。

mourn--mourn v.悲悼, 哀悼We all inclined to mourn the passing of the old institution.我们都为老辈知名人士的去世而哀悼。【考点】 mourn 用作及物动词或不及物动词均可, 用作不及物动词时, 后面通常接介词 over或 for, 再跟宾语。例如:The old woman still mourns for her son, 30 years after his death.30年过去了, 老妇女还在为她死去的儿子哀悼。The whole nation mourned over the death of veteran statesman.举国哀悼这位老政治家的逝世。

movement--movement n.运动, 活动That movement soon died down.那场运动很快就平息了。【考点】 比较 movement和 motion:二者都有“移动”、“运动”之意。movement特指某人或某物的移动, 强调向同一特定方向以不变的方式移动。如:the movement of the earth(地球的转动)。motion指非静止状态或移动的过程, 特别指离开某一特殊的东西, 或是在不强调动作种类时的移动。例如:We study the laws of motion.我们研究运动定律。

much--much n.许多, 大量Much has been said but little done.说得多而做得少。【考点】 make much of… 理解, 明白;重视, 充分利用;夸奖, 诌媚例如:I didn't make much of that lecture.我不大理解那篇演讲。We must make much of this incident.我们必须重视这件事。A newly married woman doesn't expect her husband to make much of other women.新婚女子不希望丈夫夸奖别的女人。

murmur--murmur v.小声抱怨, 咕哝;小声说话The people murmured against the government.人们私下里抱怨政府。【考点】 比较 murmur和 mumble:二者均有“小声说”之意。murmur指连续地低沉而不清楚地说话或发声, 可以表示满意或不满意。例如:He murmured the words of love in her ear.他在她的耳边低声说着情话。mumble表示几乎是听不见的含糊声音。例如:An old woman is mumbling to herself.一个老妇在喃喃自语。

music--music n.音乐, 乐曲I have no ear for music.我不懂音乐。【考点】 注意“随着音乐跳舞”是 dance to the music, “和着音乐唱歌”是 sing to the music, 其中介词不能用 with。例如:Some of them are dancing to the music.他们中有些人正随着音乐跳舞。

must--must aux.&v.必须, 应当When you enter the building, you must show the guard your pass.进入大楼时, 须向警察出示通行证。【考点】 must在使用中要注意以下几点:①must是情态动词,没有过去式。②must在否定句中表示“一定不要,别”, 而不能理解为“不必”。③在回答由must引导的一般疑问句时, 如果是否定意思, 常用needn't。④must与完成式连用表示对过去的推测(在疑问句和否定句中用can和can't)。

mystery--mystery n.神秘, 神秘的事物There was a mystery hanging over her antecedents.她的身世中有个神秘之处。【考点】 mystery 还作“神秘小说”、“侦探小说”讲。例如:She doesn't like reading mysteries.她不喜欢读侦探小说。

naked--naked adj.裸体的, 无遮蔽的, 无掩饰的The trees were left naked of leaves.树上一片树叶也没有。【考点】 比较 naked和 bare:naked和 bare均有“裸的”之意, 但 bare指局部的裸, 而 naked指全体的裸, 所以, 我们说“赤脚”(barefoot)、“赤膊”(barearm), 均用bare而不用 naked。此外, bare和naked均有“缺乏”之意, 但 bare表示“特殊的缺乏”(particular want), naked表示“一般的缺乏”( general want)。因此, 如果说 bare wall 则是指壁土脱落的墙壁, 而说naked wall是指常见的、普通的、没有装修的墙壁。

name--name n.名字, 名称We always associate the name of Lenin with the great October Socialist Revolution.我们总是把列宁的名字与伟大的十月社会主义革命联系在一起。【考点】(1)in the name of表示“以……名义”, 是常见短语。例如:He does business in the name of his wife.他以他妻子的名义做生意。(2)name作动词, 有“给……取名”、“取名”、“说出”之意。例如:The boy is named after his grandfather.这男孩是以祖父的名字取名的。Her father named her Kitty.她父亲给她取名基蒂。Can you name this plant?你能说出这种植物的名字吗?

nation--nation n.民族, 国家The Chinese nation has a long history.中华民族历史悠久。【考点】 辨别 people, nation和 race:people和 nation均可表示“民族”, people 强调文化和社会的统一性, 指有共同文化、共同信念、共同利益而群集起来的人们;nation强调政治上的一致, 指政治上统一的、在一个政府领导下的人们;race“种族”侧重于有相同的血统和有共同生活、生理特征的人们。例如:Hawaiians were a people, not a nation.夏威夷族是一个民族而不是一个国家。Americans are a people and a nation, not a race.美国人代表的是一个民族和国家, 而不是一个种族。

nature--nature n.性质, 本质;自然界, 大自然It's his nature to be kind to people.他为人厚道。【考点】(1)nature表示“大自然, 自然界”时, 前面不加冠词。例如:You cannot go against nature.你不能违背自然。Man is engaged in a constant struggle with nature.人类与大自然进行不懈的斗争。(2)by nature 天生, 就其本质而言例如:That man is proud by nature.那个人天生骄傲。He is by nature kind and generous.他是个天生仁慈和宽宏大量的人。in nature 本质上例如:He is not bad in nature.他本质上并不坏。

need--need n.需要, 必要There is a great need for a new book on the subject.非常需要有一本这方面的新书。【考点】 need作名词, 还作“贫困、困窘”讲。例如:We are collecting money for children in need.我们正为贫困儿童募捐。He helped me in my hour of need.他在我困窘之时帮了我。

neglect--neglect v·忽视;疏忽, 忽略You should not neglect your work for private life.你不能因为自己的事而忽视了工作。【考点】 比较 neglect, ignore, disregard 和 overlook:neglect 可表示故意或无意地“疏忽、忘记”, 后面可接不定式,如:neglect to do…(忘记做……);ignore 和 disregard则常指有意识地“置之不理, 不顾”;而overlook 则有“看漏, 忽略”之意。例如:She has neglected to write home.她已忘了写信给家里。They ignored traffic regulations.他们不遵守交通规则。He disregarded my warnings and got into trouble.他不听我的劝告, 结果陷入了麻烦之中。The teacher overlooked two spelling mistakes in my composition.我的作文有两处拼写错误, 老师没看出来。

negotiate--negotiate v·谈判, 交涉, 商议We have been negotiating for some time.我们进行谈判已有些时候了。【考点】 negotiate 常用作不及物动词, 与with连用, 表示“与……商议”。但有时也用作及物动词, 表示“商定”。例如:The union negotiated a new contract with the city.工会与市政府谈妥一项新合同。The government has to negotiate with the opposition party on the new law.政府不得不和反对党就新法令问题进行磋商。

net--net n.网, 网状物The fishermen caught fish in their nets.渔夫用网捕鱼。【考点】 注意 net作形容词, 意为“净的, 纯净的”。例如:This jar of coffee weighs 7 ounces net.这一罐咖啡净重7盎司。The net price of a book is real price, from which no discount can be made.一本书的净价即实价, 不能从中再打折扣了。

nominal--nominal adj.名义上的The old man is only nominal head of the business; his daughter makes all the decisions.那老人只是这家商行的名义老板, 所有的决定均由他女儿做出。【考点】 注意, nominal作形容词时, 还指“(金额、租金)微不足道的”的意思。例如:I paid him a merely nominal rent for the cottage.我租用那小屋只付给他极少的、象征性的租金。

nominate--nominate v.提名, 任命He was nominated president.他被提名为总统候选人。【考点】 nominate表示“提名”, 常和介词 for或 as连用, 即 nomi nate sb. for /as…(把某人任命为……)。例如:I nominate Bill for club president. 我提名比尔为俱乐部主任候选人。The mayor nominated him as police chief.市长任命他为警察局长。

nor--nor conj.也不, 又不She had understood nothing, nor had she sought to understand.她什么也不懂, 而且也不想懂。【考点】 nor与 neither连用时, 后面必须是对等成份;nor引出一个句子时, 须用倒装语序。例如:For some reason he was neither surprised nor frightened.因某种原因, 他既不感到吃惊, 也不害怕。Nor am I ashamed to confess my ignorance of what I do not known.(因此)我是不知道的事就承认说不知道,并不害羞。

not--not adv.不, 没有They can not speak English.他们不会讲英语。【考点】(1)not 可以与名词连用, 与可数名词的单数连用时,用not a,与不可数的抽象名词、物质名词和普通复数名词连用时, 用not any。例如:Not a man was killed, and only three wounded.没有一个人丧生, 只有三个人受伤。Not any air gets into the vacuum tube.没有空气能进入真空管。(2)not 用在一些动词(如think,hope, suppose, believe, expect, fear, fancy, trust, seem, appear等), 副词(如perhaps, probably, absolutely等)和词组 be afraid等的后面, 代替一个否定结构的从句或谓语。例如:“Will it rain today?”“I hope not.”“今天下雨吗?”“我希望不下。”“Can I come in?”“I'm afraid not.”“我可以进来吗?”“恐怕不行。”

noted--noted adj.著名的;知名的This town is noted for its old buildings.这个市镇以其古老的建筑闻名。【考点】 比较 noted 和famous:noted 主要指由于某种成就, 或在某方面特别优异而引人注意并有一种声誉, 发:a noted authority on bee-keeping(一位著名的养蜂权威人士)。famous强调由于多种理由为人们所欢迎或被人们认可,有称颂的含义, 如:a famous film star(一位著名的电影明星)。

nothing--nothing n.没有什么东西;微不足道的事情;无Nothing in the world is difficult for one who sets his mind to it.天下无难事, 只怕有心人。【考点】 nothing but 只有, 仅仅例如:Nothing but a miracle can save her now。现在只有出现奇迹才能救她。Don't have him for a friend;he's nothing but a criminal.不要把他当朋友,他仅仅是个罪犯。

notify--notify v.通知, 告知, 报告I'll notify my lawyer to write out the agreement.我就要通知我的律师写契约。【考点】 notify 常用于 notify sb. of sth. 和 notify sb. that…的结构中。例如:I notified him that the meeting had been postponed.我通知他会议已延期。Please notify me of the change of your address.请将你改变的地址告诉我。

notwithstanding--notwithstanding prep.尽管Notwithstanding her naughtiness, I love my little girl.尽管她淘气, 我还是爱我的小女儿。【考点】 notwithstanding是正式用语, 用作介词时有时也置于其所指名词之后。例如:Language difficulties notwithstanding, be soon grew to love the country and its people.虽然言语不通, 但他还是很快就爱上了这个国家及其人民。The law will go into force, any other agreements notwithstanding.尽管有其他的协议,法律仍将生效。

nowhere--nowhere adv.任何地方都不, 没有地方The poor old man has nowhere to live.这个可怜的老人没有任何地方可住。【考点】 nowhere是含否定意义的副词, 放在句首时句子的主谓应部分倒装。例如:Nowhere under the sun can he find a place to settle down.天下之大,他居然找不到一处可安顿下来的地方。

number--number n.数字, 号码 v.编号, 总计The number of chairs in the room is 10.这房间里的椅子数共10把。【考点】 a number of表示“若干”的意思, 其后总是跟可数名词的复数形式, 如果是不可数名词, 就必须改用amount。另外, number前可用 great, large, small等修饰。例如:A number of visitors came to the meeting.一些来访者参加了这次会议。A number of comrades were absent from the meeting.许多同志没有到会。

obedience--obedience n.服从, 顺从The commanding officer expected unquestioning obedience from his men.指挥官要下属绝对服从。【考点】 in obedience to 表示“服从”的意思。例如:I acted in obedience to orders.我服从命令。I promise to act in obedience to your orders.我保证遵照您的命令行事。

obscure--obscure adj.阴暗的;黑暗的;模糊的;偏僻的The meaning of this poem is very obscure; I really do not understand it.这首诗的意义很模糊, 我真的不懂它。【考点】 辨析 vague, dim 和obscure:这三个词都有“不清楚的, 不确切的”的意思。vague指由于未能明白或完全猜透而不能确定。例如:He had only vague memories of his early childhood.对于童年, 他仅有模糊的记忆。dim强调视觉的困难的、昏暗的、微弱的。例如:Her eyes were dim with tears. 她由于含泪而看不清。obscure语气最为强烈, 指环境黑暗而造成看不清。例如:The room is too obscure for reading.房间的光线太暗无法读书。

occasion--occasion n.时机, 机会;场合, 时刻He used the occasion to express all his old grievances against the chairman.他利用那次机会表达了对主席积压已久的怨气。【考点】 on occasion 有时, 不时例如:We go to New York on occasion.我们有时去纽约。I met him on occasion at the club or in the theatre.我有时在俱乐部或在剧院里遇到他。

occupy--occupy v.占用, 占据;使忙碌, 使从事They said that women occupy the lowest positions in the teaching profession.他们说在教学行业中, 妇女占据最低的职位。【考点】 occupy 作“使忙碌, 使从事”讲时, 有两种用法:①用反身代词oneself作宾语;②用被动语态表现形式。例如:He occupied himself in writing a book.他忙于写一本书。She is occupied in translating a French novel.她正忙于翻译一部法文小说。

occur--occur v.发生, 出现;想起, 想到 When did the earthquake occur?地震什么时候发生的?【考点】 occur当表示“想起, 想到”时, 必须与介词to连用, 有“被想到, 被想起”的意思。例如:This was the instance that occurred first to my mind.这就是我首先想到的那个例子。It occurred to him to leave the whole thing to his wife.他想到把这事全交给他的妻子去办。

odds--odds n.不平等, 差异;机会The odds are in your favor because you have more experience.你经验丰富, 成功的机会居多。【考点】 at odds(with)与(……)不一致;争执例如:He's always at odds with his father over politics.在政治上他总和父亲意见不一致。They're constantly at odds with each other.他们常互相争吵。

offensive--offensive adj.冒犯的, 进攻的 n.攻势, 进攻Offensive weapons are those intended for attack on someone.进攻性武器就是那些旨在向某人发起进攻的武器。【考点】 注意 offensive作名词时, 常与 assume,take 以及act on等 动词和动词词组连用。例如:The team took the offensive and won.该队发起了进攻并取胜。The enemy assumed the offensive at the beginning of the battle.战争一开始敌人就采取了攻势。

officer--officer n.办事员;工作人员;军官He acted as liaison officer with foreign press correspondents.他是担任与外国记者联络的官员。【考点】 officer 作“军官”讲时, 通常是指军队里身居指挥职位的一员, 或是警察力量中的一员, 有时与official相同。例如:Both commissioned and non-commissioned officers attended.有军衔和无军衔的军官都出席了。

offset--offset v.抵消, 补偿 n.分支, 补偿He put up his prices too offset the increased cost of materials.他抬高了售价以补偿材料成本的增加。【考点】 offset作名词当“补偿”讲时, 后常接介词 to或 for, 表示“对……的补偿”。例如:The better roads on this route are an offset for the greater distance.这条线路的道路较好, 补偿了较远路的缺点。In football, his speed and cleverness were an offset to his small size.他踢足球时的速度和机灵弥补了他身体矮小的缺陷。

oneself--oneself pron.自己, 自身;亲自One should not praise oneself. 一个人不应该自吹自擂。【考点】 by oneself 独自地, 单独地例如:The baby can walk by himself now.这个小家伙现在能自己走路了。One can't possibly do it by oneself.一个人不可能单独做这件事。

only--only adv.仅仅, 只不过There are only four people ahead of us now.现在我们前面只有4个人。【考点】(1)only 的位置比较灵活, 在书写时都直接放在被修饰成分的前面。(2)only 修饰句子状语部分, 并且放在句首时, 该句的主谓必须部分倒装, 但 only位于句首不是修饰状语时, 要用正常语序。例如:Only at that time did he realize his mistake.只有在那时他才认识到他的错误。Only members may use the bar.只有会员才能使用这酒吧。

operate--operate v.运转;动手术This machine operates night and day.这台机器日夜运转。【考点】 operate 表示“动手术”, 是不及物动词, 如果跟宾语时必须先接介词on。例如:The doctor says he may have to operate.医生说他可能必须手术。You can get a private doctor to operate on him.你可以找个私人医生给他动手术。

operation--operation n.运转, 操作;手术;运算I can use a word processor but I don't understand its operation.我能使用文字处理机, 但不了解其运转机制。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:come/go into operation 开始运转, 开工例如:The orders will come into operation on the 15th.命令将在15日生效。When does the plan come into operation?计划什么时候实施?put/bring into operation 使投入生产, 使运转例如:A number of mechanized pits here have been put into operation.已有许多机械化的矿井投入生产。The law has been put into operation.该法已生效。

order--order n.命令;次序;定购When charged with withholding important information, he replied that he was only acting on orders.当他被指控隐瞒重要情报时, 他回答说他只不过按照命令行事。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:out of order 发生故障, 失调例如:The railway traffic is out of order owing to floods.洪水使铁路交通出了毛病。The elevator is out of order.电梯出了毛病。put in order 整理, 检修例如:Put your papers in order. 把你的文件整理好。Congress has suggested that union should put its affairs in order.议会建议工会整顿其事务。

orderly--orderly adj.整齐的, 有秩序的, 有条理的We are conducting a peaceful and orderly political meeting.我们正在进行和平而又秩序井然的政治会议。【考点】 orderly 作形容词时, 我们比较熟悉, 但它作名词时, 还作“勤务员”讲。例如:She is a medical orderly.她是一名卫生员。The general's orderly delivered the message.将军的传令兵传送了这一消息。

original--original adj.原始的, 原文的;新颖的, 有独创性的The Indians were the original inhabitants of North America.印第安人是北美最早的居民。【考点】 original 除可作形容词外, 还可作名词, 意思是“原作”、“原文”。例如:He can read Shakespeare in the original.他可以读莎士比亚原著。I am going to read a few English novels in the original.我打算读几本英文原著小说。

originate--originate v.首创, 创造;起源, 发生Who originated the concept of stereo sound?立体声是由谁设想出来的?【考点】 originate表示“起源, 发生”, 是不及物动词, 后面常跟介词 from或 in。例如:The style of architecture originated from the ancient Greeks.这种建筑风格起源于古希腊。The quarrel originated in a misunderstanding.争吵是由于误解引起的。

other--other adj.另外的;其他的Wilson found there was only one other guest besides himself.威尔逊发现除了他自己外只有一个别的客人。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义every other 每隔一个例如:The doctor visits her every other day。医生每隔一天就来看她。Don't write on every line; write every other line.不要每行都写, 要隔行写。other than 不同于例如:His tastes are quite other than mine.他的口味完全不同于我的。I have never known him behave other than selfishly.我只知道他一向自私自利。

out--out adv.在外, 出来;熄灭You oughtn't to stay out so late.你不应该在外面呆那么晚。【考点】 out of 丧失, 失去;缺乏, 没有例如:Her husband is out of work.她的丈夫失业了。We're already out of gasoline. 我们几乎没有汽油了。

outlook--outlook n.展望, 前景;景色;观点The European outlook then looked black indeed.当时欧洲的前景确实显得十分暗淡。【考点】 outlook 尤指远眺中的景色或景致, 后面常跟介词 over 或 onto。例如:The house has a pleasant outlook over the valley.从这所房子可以看到山谷景色优美。Their house has a wonderful outlook.他们的房屋外面景色美妙。

outset--outset n.开始, 开端At the outset of her career she was full of optimism but not now.她事业伊始十分乐观, 但现在已今非昔比了。【考点】 outset 一般只用于at/from the outset中, 表示“在开头, 从开始”。例如:I warned you at the outset not to trust him, and you wouldn't listen to me.从一开始我就警告你不要信任他, 而你却不听我的话。From the outset it was clear that he was guilty.一开始就很清楚他有罪。

overall--overall adj.全面的, 综合的The overall sales of the wholesalers increased by 10%.批发商的总销售额增加了百分之十。【考点】 overall 作名词时, 它的复数形式作“(套头)工作服, 工装裤”讲。例如:The laboratory workers are in white overalls. 实验室的工作人员身穿白色工作服。The carpenter was wearing a pair of blue overalls.那木匠穿着蓝色的工装裤。

overlook--overlook v.看漏;俯瞰, 眺望;宽容, 放任I overlooked this problem and shall have to tackle it now.我忽略了这个问题, 但现在必须着手处理了。【考点】 注意 overlook 下面句子中的不同意思:例如:Our garden is overlooked by our neighbor's windows.从邻居的窗户可看到我家的花园。I'll overlook your lateness this time, but don't be late again.你这次迟到我不计较,但是不要再迟到了。

owing--owing adj.欠的, 未付的There are still ten dollars owing.仍欠10美元。【考点】 owing to 由于例如:His death was owing to an accident.他的死是由于事故造成的。Owing to the rain, the match was cancelled.比赛因雨取消了。

own--own v.拥有, 有 adj.自己的One percent of the people owned more than fifty percent of the wealth.百分之一的人拥有百分之五十以上的财富。【考点】 on one's own 独自地, 独立地例如:I'm all on my own today. 今天我是独自一人。Although her father is in the firm, she got the job on her own.尽管她父亲在公司里,但她那份工作却是靠自己得到的。

pace--pace n.步, 步伐The fastest runner set the pace and the others followed.跑得最快的人定下速度, 其他人跟着。【考点】 keep/hold pace with 跟上, 与……同步例如:The supply can hardly keep pace with the demand.几乎供不应求。She works very fast; I can't keep pace with her.她干得很快,我无法跟上她的速度。

pain--pain n.痛;劳苦Her behavior caused her parents a great deal of pain.她的行为给父母带来了极大的痛苦。【考点】(1)pain表示“痛,痛苦”, 多指因疾病、创伤而引起的难受感觉,不含持续疼痛的含义,常指一阵突然的全身或局部的疼痛,也指因伤心造成的暂时性的痛苦。(2)take pains 尽力, 煞费苦心例如:She takes great pains with her work.她工作兢兢业业。She took great pains in educating her children.她煞费苦心地教育她的子女。

pale--pale adj.淡的;苍白的We walked at a quick pace in the pale moon.我们在淡淡的月光下迅速地走着。【考点】 注意它的两个固定搭配:be pale before(在……前相形见绌);make pale by comparison(使……相形见绌)。

paper--paper n.文章, 论文;纸;试卷;报纸Each student must write a paper on what he learned from the course.每个学生必须写一篇关于他学习这门课程的收获的论文。【考点】 注意 paper作动词, 意为“裱糊”。例如:A number of stains on the wall were papered over.墙上的许多污迹已用纸遮盖起来了。One of the windows had been papered up.有一扇窗子已用纸糊死了。

parcel--parcel n.包裹, 邮包The paper parcel contained a clean shirt, socks and a handkerchief.纸包裹里装有一件干净衬衫、袜子和一块手帕。【考点】 辨析 bundle, pack, package, packet和 parcel: bundle“捆, 束”, 指宽松地打成的捆或包, 如:a bundle of flowers (一束花);a bundle of letters(一包信);a bundle of firewood(一捆柴)等。例如:On the road there was a man with a bundle of firewood on his back.路上有个人背着一捆柴。pack“驮物”, 专为背负而包扎的包裹、驮物等。例如:She had thrown her pack from her shoulders.她扔掉她肩膀上的东西。package“小包”, 和 parcel 或 packet相比, 是较大和较重的包, 特为搬运而包扎的包, 是和parcel同义的美语。例如:He returned to the room with a small package in his hand.他手里拿了个包回到屋里。packet“小包”, 指包得整齐的小包。例如:The packet slept in the corner of his private safe.那小包放在他的个人保险箱里。parcel“小包”, 普通用语, 特指邮包, 主要是英国用语。例如:He carries a parcel wrapped in the“Times”.他拿着个包, 用《时报》包着的。

partial--partial adj.部分的, 不完全的The play was only a partial success.这场剧只取得部分的成功。【考点】 partial 作形容词, 应注意它还作“偏袒的”、“不公平的”讲。例如:I'm very partial to sweet foods.我特别喜欢甜食。The referee was accused of being partial to the home team.裁判员被指控偏袒本国球队。

particular--particular adj.特殊的;特定的I have something very particular to say to you.我有件很特别的事情要告诉你。【考点】(1) particular作名词, 意为“详情”、“细目”。例如:The policewoman wrote down his particulars.女警察记下了他的个人资料。Her account is correct in every particular.她的账目笔笔无误。(2)in particular 特别地, 尤其, 详细地例如:The whole meal was good but the wine in particular was excellent.整顿饭都很好, 尤其是葡萄酒更好。I noticed his eyes in particular, because they were very large.我特别注意到他的眼睛,因为他的眼睛非常大。

pass--pass v.经过;传递I passed the restaurant on my way to the library.我去图书馆的路上从餐馆旁边经过。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:pass away 去世, 逝世例如:His mother passed away last year.他母亲去年去世了。She passed away in her sleep.她在睡眠中去世。pass out 失去知觉, 昏倒例如:She went back to work while she was still sick, and finally she just passed out.她还生着病时就回去上班了, 最后昏倒了。She passed out when she heard the bad news.当她听到这一噩耗时,昏倒了。

passion--passion n.激情;热情;强烈的爱好The poet expressed his burning passion for the woman he loved.诗人表达了他对所爱的女人的火一般的激情。【考点】 比较passion, emotion 和feeling:这三个词均有“情绪”、“感情”之意。passion 特指是愤怒、爱好或情欲。例如:He choked with passion at such a scene of atrocity. 看到那残暴的情景, 他愤怒得说不出话来。emotion指喜、怒、哀、乐等情绪。例如:His speech had an effect on our emotions rather than on our reason.他的讲话与其说是唤醒了我们的理智, 不如说是打动了我们的感情。feeling 指心理上的感觉。例如:Her feelings were greatly hurt by what he said.他的话大大伤害了她的感情。

patent--patent n.专利, 专利品He has taken out a patent to protect his new invention.他已取得了一项专利权以保护他的新发明。【考点】 patent for……的专利例如:He got a patent for his invention.他取得发明的专利。Tom obtained a patent for the process.汤姆获得了这项工艺的专利。

pay--pay v.支付;进行(访问);给予(注意)I'll pay you a visit next week.我将于下周去拜访你。【考点】 比较 pay a visit to与 be on a visit to:这两个词组都是“访问, 参观”的意思, 其中的to均为介词, 后接人或地方名词, 以表示“访问, 参观”的对象, 在名词visit 前可用适当的形容词修饰, 以说明访问的性质。pay a visit 是 call on的正式语, 终止性比较强, 因此一般不能同表示一段时间的状语连用(否定句除外)。美国人常用 make a visit to, 英国人不爱这样用。例如:I paid a visit to Mr and Mrs Smith yesterday afternoon.我昨天下午访问了史密斯夫妇。We paid a visit to an exhibition last week.上星期我们参观了一个展览会。be on a visit to中的 on a visit to属表示进行意义的介词短语, 同be动词连用, 一起表示 be visiting(在进行访问)或“在(某人)家里做客”的意思。例如:He is now on a brief visit to England.他目前正在英国做短期访问。I was on a visit to my cousin's.我在表兄家里做客。

peep--peep v.偷看, 窥视His hands were covering his face, but I could see him peeping through his fingers.他用手遮着脸, 但是我看得见他通过指缝在偷看。【考点】 比较peep与peer:peep是“偷看”的意思, 是不及物动词, 后常跟介词at。例如:He peeped at me from time to time.他不时地偷看我。peer是因为看不清而费力地盯着看,看时常探头、身体前倾, 带有好奇或搜索的意味。例如:She peered up at each house's door, trying to find number 53.她注视每幢房子的大门,要找53号门牌。

penalty--penalty n.处罚, 惩罚It is part of the contract that there is a penalty for late delivery.合同中有延迟交货的惩罚规定。【考点】 penalty for 因……而受到惩罚例如:She has paid the penalty for her crimes.她因犯了罪受到了惩罚。The penalty for that offense is ten years imprisonment.那种犯罪的刑期是10年监禁。

penetrate--penetrate v.穿过, 渗入, 看穿The mist penetrated(into) the room.雾已渗入室内。【考点】 比较penetrate与 pierce:penetrate“穿入, 侵入”, 是穿入的意思,但含有迟缓而困难的含义。在多数场合,penetrate 指自然的作用而言,pierce 指人工的作用而言,但这两个词常互相替用。pierce“刺入”, 指用锐利的东西(如针等)深深地刺入或穿入, 如:用锥穿入木;用针刺入肉;用箭、弹丸等穿入人或动物等。

penny--penny n.便士, 美分604.S e was left without a penny.她被搞得一文钱也没有了。【考点】 penny用于美国或加拿大, 指“1分”, 而在英国叫“便士”, 100便士等于1英镑。penny的复数是pennies, 但用于数词后构成复合词时用pence, 如:sixpence(6便士)。

percentage--percentage n.百分数, 百分率, 百分比What percentage of his income is paid in income tax?他所交的所得税占他收人的百分之几?【考点】 percentage 不与具体的数字连用, 但可以由定语修饰。例如:The unemployment percentage keeps rising in the capitalist world. 资本主义世界失业人口的百分比不断上升。

person--person n.人;本人;自身He is just the person we need for the job.他正是我们需要的做那种工作的人。【考点】 in person 亲自例如:I can't attend the meeting in person, but I'm sending someone to speak for me.我不能亲自参加会议, 但是我会派人去代我发言。Will you apply for the position by letter or in person?你要亲自去申请那个工作,还是写信去申请?

personality--personality n.人格, 人性The child is developing a fine personality.这孩子正在养成一种良好的人格。【考点】 比较personality和 character:两者均有“性格”、“个性”之意, 但 personality侧重社交方面, 多指与人交往的“个性”;character侧重道德方面, 多指个人的“性格”。例如:For a career in sales, you need a forceful personality.从事推销这个行业, 需要有坚强的个性。He is a man of strong character who will fight for what is right.他是一个性格刚强的人,愿为正义而战斗。

pertinent--pertinent adj.恰当的;贴切的The author's reasons for changing his novel are highly pertinent.作者对他的小说修改得非常恰当。【考点】 be pertinent to 和……有关例如:Your remarks are not pertinent to the matter. 你的话不切题。
--petition-- petition n.请愿书, 申请书, 诉状The towns-people sent a petition to the government asking for electric light for the town.市民向政府递交请愿书, 要求为该市安装电灯。【考点】 petition 可作为及物或不及物动词用, 作“向……请愿”讲。作为及物动词时, 其后可跟名词或动词不定式作宾语, 并用介词 for 引出请愿的内容, 表示“向……请愿”或“要求……”。例如:Several organizations petitioned the government for the release of the political prisoners.好几个组织上书政府, 请求释放政治犯。They petitioned for an early end to the fighting.他们上书请求早日结束战争。

phase--phase n.阶段, 状态, 时期At present his voice is changing; that is phase all boys go through.目前他正在变声, 这是所有男孩都要经历的一个阶段。【考点】 比较 phase in和 in phase:phase in是动副型短语动词, 用作及物动词, 后接事物名词, 表示“逐步采用, 分阶段采用”的意思。例如:This factory has phased in new machinery for increased automation.这家工厂已开始逐步采用新机器以提高自动化程度。We have decided to phase the new techniques in.我们已决定逐步引进新技术。in phase为介词短语, 用作表语、定语或状语。通常指在物理方面“同相的(地)”或指物体在运动方面“同时协调的(地)”。其反义词组为 out of phase。例如:This voltage must be in phase with the primary voltage.这一电压必须与原电压相同。Sure that at least one propeller was moving in and out of phase.肯定至少有一个推进器的运转时而协调,时而不协调。

pick--pick v.挑选;拾, 采He picked the biggest cake he could find.他选择了他能找到的最大蛋糕。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:pick out 选出;辨认例如:We picked out the weeds among the rice.我们拔除了稻丛间的杂草。Can you pick out your sister in this crowd?你能在这人群中认出你妹妹吗?pick up 拾起, 增加;中途搭(人), 中途带(货);获得例如:Pick up the box by the handles.提箱子时抓住把手。The train picked up speed.火车加快了速度。The train stopped to pick up passengers.火车停下来让乘客上车。Pick up some knowledge of physics.偶然获得一些物理知识。

piece--piece n.碎片;一(片), 一(件)The boat was smashed to pieces on the rocks.船触礁而撞碎了。【考点】 piece作动词, 作“拼合, 拼凑”讲。例如:She is piecing together odds and ends of cloth to make a pillow case.她将零头碎布拼成一个枕套。The policeman tried to piece together the facts.警察试图把事实串起来。

pilot--pilot n.飞行员;领航员The flying school graduates a hundred pilots a year.这所飞行学校每年毕业100名飞行员。【考点】 pilot作动词用, 多指“驾驶飞机”或“为船只领航”。例如:The aviator pilots his airplane.那位飞行员驾驶他的飞机。With great skill he piloted the boat into the little harbour.他以高超的技术把这条船引进那个小港湾。

place--place n.寓所;名次;地点;地位The Smiths have a beautiful place in the country.史密斯一家在乡下有一幢漂亮的房子。【考点】 place作动词, 有“放置”、“投(资)”之意。例如:Placing two tables together, he spread the map out or them.他把两张桌子拼在一起, 把地图铺在上面。The stockbroker has placed the money in industrial stock.证券经纪人已用那笔钱购入了工业股票。

plate--plate n.金属板;盘子Plates are used for printing pictures.铜版被用来印制图片。【考点】 plate作动词, 为“镀, 电镀”之意。例如:The ring was only plated with gold.那只戒指不过是镀金的。To plate metal is to cover it with a thin layer of gold, or silver,ect.镀金属是说在金属表面镀上一层金、银等物。

play--play n.游戏, 比赛;剧本 v.玩;演奏The children are at play in the garden.孩子们在花园里玩耍。【考点】 注意下面两个与 play有关的短语:fair play 公平的竞赛, 公平对待, 光明磊落例如:I will see fair play.我将使事情得到公平处理。The man had a keen sense of justice and fair play.此人具有强烈的正义感, 做事光明磊落。play with 以……为消遣, 玩弄例如:He was playing with his toy bear.他正在玩他的玩具熊。It is wrong for a man to play with a woman's affection.男人玩弄女人的情感是错误的。

plenty--plenty n.丰富, 大量There are plenty of eggs in the house.家里有很多蛋。【考点】 “plenty of +可数名词或不可数名词”表示“许多”, 作主语时, 如果跟的是可数名词, 其谓语动词就用复数形式, 否则, 则用单数。例如:Plenty of chairs are needed for the meeting.开会需要很多椅子。Don't hurry. There is plenty of time to catch the train.别着急。我们有充足的时间赶上火车。

plot--plot n.情节;秘密计划The plot will be laid in the time of Charles Ⅱ.故事情节将以查理二世时期为背景。【考点】 plot作动词, 意为“标绘”、“密谋”。例如:The navigator plotted the course of the ship.领航员标绘出船的航线。The men were imprisoned for plotting against the government.这些人因密谋反对政府而被监禁。

point--point n.条款, 细目;尖端;分数;要点There are points on which we differ.我们有分歧点。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:come to the point 说到要点, 扼要地说例如:Let's stop discussing trivial details and come to the point.咱们别再说琐碎细节了, 说正事吧。I'm in a hurry, so come to the point.我很忙, 直说吧。on the point of 即将……的时候例如:I was on the point of going to bed when you rang.你来电话时我正要睡觉。He's on the point of breathing his last.他快要断气了。to the point 切中要害, 切题例如:In spite of all his talk he never seems to come to the point. 他虽然说了那么多话, 但似乎从未谈及要点。His speech was short and to the point.他的讲话简明中肯。

polish--polish v.磨光, 擦亮She is polishing her shoes.她在擦皮鞋。【考点】 polish作动词, 还有“使优美, 润色”之意。例如:polish up your article.把你的文章润色一下。The musicians gave a very polished performance.音乐家们做了很精彩的表演。

pool--pool n.水坑, 水塘After the rainstorm there were pools on the roads.暴风雨过后路上有许多小水坑。【考点】 pool 还可作名词或动词, 作“合资经营”、“联营”讲。例如:Our firm has a car pool.我们公司有一个车辆合用组织。They pooled their savings and bought a house in the countryside.他们用积蓄的钱合资在乡间买了一所房子。

pop--pop adj.流行的, 通俗的Which do you like better, classical music or pop music?你喜欢哪一种, 古典音乐还是流行音乐?【考点】 pop作动词, 意为“突然出现”、“发生”。例如:An idea popped into his mind like a flash.他头脑里突然闪过一个念头。He popped his head in at the door.他突然将头伸进门内。

pose--pose v.摆姿势The photographer posed him carefully.摄影师细心地指点他摆好姿势。【考点】 注意pose作动词, 还有“提出(问题等)”、“造成(困难)”、“假装”之意。例如:The increase in student numbers poses many problems for the universities.学生人数的增加给大学带来许多问题。You've posed us an awkward question.你向我们提出了一个尴尬的问题。She's always posing.她总是矫揉造作。

possible--possible adj.可能的, 做得到的It is entirely possible for us to fulfil the task ahead of schedule.我们完全有可能提前完成任务。【考点】 比较 possible与probable:possible指由于具备了适当的条件以及合理的方法, 某事物就可能存在、发生或完成,语气比probable要弱。probable表示根据事实和逻辑推理而认为可能会发生的, 但未得到实践的证实。例如:It is possible but not probable that I shall go there next week.我下星期可能去那里, 但也并非多半要去。Frost is possible, though not probable.下霜是可能的, 虽然可能性不大。

postpone--postpone v.推迟, 延期Let's postpone making a decision until we have more information.咱们在获取更多情况之后再做决定不迟。【考点】 postpone后面的宾语可以是名词, 也可以用动名词, 但不用动词不定式。表示延期至某个时间时, 用until或to引出时间。例如:The meeting was postponed until next week.会议延期至下星期举行。

potential--potential adj.可能的, 潜在的 n.潜力, 潜能Education develops potential abilities.教育在于开发潜在的能力。【考点】 have potential for有……的潜力例如:Your child has the potential for becoming a singer.你的小孩有当歌唱家的潜力。

power--power n.力, 能力;功率;权力He acquired the power of reading in eleven languages.他获得了11种语言的阅读能力。【考点】 比较 power, force和strength:power是最广泛用语, 用于人时, 指体力和智力, 也指潜在的力量;用于物时, 指一般的力量和动力。例如:Only man of all the animals has the power to reason.所有动物当中只有人类有思考的能力。force常指为完成某事而运用的能力,侧重外在的力量。例如:They had to use force to get into the room.他们不得不破门而入。strength侧重指内在的力量或本身的素质。例如:The strength of my memory begins to fail.我们的记忆力开始衰退。

practice--practice n.&v.业务, 开业;练习;实践My lawyer has a very good practice.我的律师业务兴隆。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:in practice 在实践中, 实际上例如:We've made our plans, and now we must put them into practice.我们已经制订了计划, 现在我们必须把它们付诸实施。It seems to be a good plan, but will it be any good in practice?这似乎是个好方案, 但在实际上能否有效?out of practice久不练习, 荒疏例如:He has long been out of practice on the piano.他已经很久没有练习弹钢琴了。I can't speak English fluently as I'm out of practice.我不能流利地说英语, 因为我已久不练习了。

precious--precious adj.珍贵的, 贵重的That old toy bear is John's most precious possession.那只旧的玩具熊是约翰最珍贵的东西。【考点】 比较precious和valuable:precious“贵重的”, 指本身价值非常贵的东西。例如:Gold is a precious metal.黄金是贵金属。valuable“有价值的”, 指有相当价值的东西, 它的意味比precious 弱。例如:He gave the company years of valuable service.他为公司做了多年很有用的工作。

prefer--prefer v. 更喜欢, 宁愿They preferred death to surrender in their struggle against the enemy.他们在对敌斗争中宁死不屈。【考点】(1)prefer常用于prefer… to…的搭配中, 引出不喜欢或不愿做的事。如果prefer后接两个不定式进行比较时, 第二个不定式必须用rather than引出, 并且不带不定式to。例如:I prefer to work rather than sit idle.我愿意工作, 而不愿意闲着。(2)prefer后如跟从句作宾语时, 从句中的谓语动词要用虚拟语气, 即“should +动词原形”。例如:She preferred that we should have the discussion right after the lecture.她更愿意我们一听完课就讨论。

prepare--prepare v.准备, 预备First prepare the rice by washing it, then cook it in boiling water.先淘米做好准备, 然后放进开水里煮。【考点】 prepare可以直接跟动词不定式, 表示“准备做”, 也可以跟介词for, 表示“为某事做准备”。但要注意prepare指“使某人或某人的思想上为某事做好准备”时, 应该说prepare oneself for sth.。例如:They were prepared to pay the price.他们准备付出这个代价。They were prepared for the worst. 他们已准备好应付最坏的情况。Prepared yourself for a shock.准备好听一个使你震惊的消息。

preside--preside v.主持The meeting was presided over by the chairman.会议由主席主持。【考点】 preside是不及物动词, 跟宾语时先接介词at或over。例如:The Prime Minister presides at meetings of the cabinet.首相主持内阁会议。The manager presides over the business of the store.经理主持这个商店的业务。

press--press v.压, 揿, 按Press this button to start the engine.按这个按钮开动发动机。【考点】 press有许多含义, 但要特别注意它作动词时, 有“紧迫, 催促”之意;作名词时, 有“报刊, 出版社”之意。例如:We must hurry; time is pressing.我们必须加油, 时间不多了。It id no good pressing him; he doesn't like to be hurried.催他没有好处, 他不愿别人催他。News agencies supply the press with news.通讯社为报刊提供消息。

previous--previous adj.先, 前, 以前的We had met on a previous occasion.我们上一次见过面。【考点】 previous总与to连用, 表示“在……之前, 早于”* 例如:She became ill ptevious to her visit.出访前她病了。Previous to her departure she gave a big party.在她临走之前她举行了一次大型宴会。

prey--prey v.猎取食物 n.捕获物Cats prey at night.猫在夜间捕食。【考点】 prey on折磨;捕食例如:Ill health has preyed upon him for years.身体不健康使他多年来备受折磨。Foxes prey on rabbits.狐狸捕食兔子。

price--price n.价格, 价钱;代价The price varies according to the quality.价格随质量而异。【考点】 当我们说价格便宜或贵的概念时, 不可以用cheap或expensive修饰 price, 而只能用low或high修饰。例如:I can't afford to pay such a high price. 我出不起这样高的价钱。

prime--prime adj.首要的, 主要的Her prime motive was personal ambition.她的主要动机是为了实现个人的志向。【考点】 prime作形容词, 还有“最好的”、“第一流的”之意。另外, 它作名词时作“青春”、“全盛期”讲。例如:The broadcast went out on television at prime time when everyone was watching.这电视节目在众人皆看的黄金时间播出。When is a man in his prime?何时是一个人的盛年?She has past her prime.她的大好时光已经过去。

principal--principal adj.最重要的, 主要的The principal character in the story is a young artist.这故事的主要角色是一位年轻的艺术家。【考点】 注意principal作名词, 有“校长, 负责人”和“资本, 本金”之意。例如:The principal sat in our class yesterday.校长昨天到我们班上听课了。How much interest will there be on a principal of 5,000?5,000美元本金的利息是多少?

prior--prior adj. 优先的, 在前的I was unable to attend the wedding because of a prior engagement.我不能参加婚礼因为预先已有约会。【考点】 prior总是和介词to连用, 表示“优于或先于”, 而to不可以换成than。例如:This task is prior to all others.这项任务比任何其他任务都重要。It happened prior to my arrival.这发生在我到达之前。

priority--priority n.优先, 优先权Fire engines and ambulances have priority over other traffic.消防车和救护车与其他交通工具相比有优先通行权。【考点】 注意表示“优越, 凌驾”的名词后面一般用介词over,如:advantage(优势, 利益);superiority(优势);priority(优先)等等。例如:No one doubts the superiority of modern ways of travelling over those of old times.不会有人怀疑现代旅行手段比过去有优势。The project has priority over all others.这个项目优先于其他项目。

proceeding--proceeding n.行动, 进行The proceedings at the meeting were rather disorderly.会议进行得很乱。【考点】 注意proceeding的名词复数形式, 还常作“会议记录”“学报”讲。例如:He carefully read the proceedings from the last meetings.他仔细阅读上次会议记录。His paper was published in the proceedings of the Kent Archaeological Society.他的论文已在《肯特考古学会学报》上发表。

produce--produce n.产品, 农产品On this street there is a nes store for the sale of fresh produce.这条街上有一家卖新鲜农产品的新商店。【考点】 比较 produce, product和production:这三个词均作“产品”讲。produce不可数名词, 表示“农产品”的总称, 属集合名词。例如:The farmers brought their produce to town early each Saturday morning.每星期六早上农民早早地就将他们的农产品运到了城里。product可数名词, 多指工业、农业产品, 亦指脑力和体力劳动成果。例如:Fruit and wine are important products of California.水果和葡萄酒是加利福尼亚的重要产品。production不可数名词, 指生产的动作或产量。例如:Production has gone up to all-time high.生产达到了最高记录。

proficiency--proficiency n.熟练, 精通I have already mentioned four ways of improving general oral proficiency test.我已经介绍了4种提高总的口语熟练技巧的测试方法。【考点】 proficiency后面常接介词in, 表示在某个方面精通或熟练。另外, proficiency是不可数名词, 没有复数形式。例如:He made little proficiency in literary accomplishments.他的文学造诣不够精深。

progress--progress n.前进, 进展The walkers were making slow progress along the rocky path.行人沿着岩石小道慢慢往上走。【考点】 make progress进步, 进展例如:Jane is still sick in the hospital, but she's making progress.简仍然病着住在医院里, 但她正在好转。Are you making any progress with your report?你的报告有进展吗?

prohibit--prohibit v.阻止;禁止Good manners prohibit me from so rude an answer.礼貌不允许我如此粗鲁的回答。【考点】 prohibit sb .from doing sth.(禁止某人做某事)和 prohibit doing sth. (禁止做某事)是 prohibit的常用搭配。例如:Smoking in this theatre is prohibited.本剧院禁止吸烟。Students are prohibited from smoking inside school.禁止学生在校内吸烟。

project--project n.方案, 计划, 工程The government has begun a project at the port to increase the size of the harbour.政府已开始在该港口进行扩大港湾的工程。【考点】 比较project和plan:project常指规模较大的, 尤指为某项大工程或重要试验所做的计划。例如:We talked about very large scale projects for putting satellites into space.我们商讨了一项将几颗卫星送上天的规模庞大的计划。plan是常用词, 通常指做某项工作前所做的安排、步骤或程序。例如:Everything went according to the plan.一切均按计划进行。

prompt--prompt adj.敏捷的, 迅速的, 即刻的Prompt payment of the invoice would be appreciated.即付发票款项则不胜感谢。【考点】 prompt作动词, 意为“激起, 促进, 推动”。例如:He was prompted by patriotism.他为爱国心所激励。Lessons written in blood prompted the colonial peoples to armed uprising.血的教训促使殖民地人民进行武装起义。

proportion--proportion n.比例;部分, 份儿The proportion of men to women in the population has changed so that there are now fewer women and more men.现在人口中男女比例已经改变了, 女人少了, 男人多了。【考点】 in proportion to与……成比例例如:He is cleverer than you in proportion to his years.他比你聪明, 这与你俩年龄成比例。He has a great taste for art, but his critical ability is not in proportion.他酷爱艺术,但他的鉴赏力却与此不相称。

proposal--proposal n.提议, 建议I have a proposal to make to this meeting.我要向会议提出一项建议。【考点】 proposal作名词, 还当“求婚”讲。例如:Miss Sharple received a proposal from Mr .Minder.夏普尔小姐受到了奈恩德先生的求婚。She turned down his proposal.她拒绝了他的求婚。

propose--propose v.提议, 建议;提名, 推荐I propose resting for half an hour.我提议休息半小时。【考点】 propose表示“提议, 建议”, 后面跟从句时, 从句中的谓语动词用虚拟语气,即“(should)+动词原形”。例如:We propose that the house(should) be repaired.我们建议对房屋进行修理。

protest--protest v.抗议, 反对All the local farmers protested against the new airport being built on rich farmland.当地农民一致抗议在肥沃的农田上修建新机场。【考点】 protest通常用作不及物动词, 表示抗议某事时, 可先接介词against或about。如表示向某人提出抗议时, 要接介词to。例如:They protested about the bad food at the hotel; they protested to the owner.他们抗议旅馆的伙食太差,他们向老板提出抗议。

provide--provide v.提供, 供给The villagers provided the guerrillas with food.村民们为游击队提供食物。【考点】 provide指提供需要的和有用的东西。 provide sb. with sth.表示“提供某人某物”;provide for sb.表示“供养, 养活”。例如:They worked hard to provide for their large family.他们努力工作以供养一大家子人。

public--public adj.公开的;公共的The minister will make a public statement soon about the new plans of the government.部长不久将公开说明政府的新计划。【考点】 in public 公开地, 当众例如:She was appearing in public for the first time since her illness.她自从患病以来, 第一次公开露面。A man with such pride rarely loses his temper in public.如此自尊的人很少当众发脾气。

pure--pure adj.纯白的;纯理论的;抽象的She is a pure young girl.她是一个纯洁无邪的年轻姑娘。【考点】 注意pure还作“完全的”、“十足的”讲。例如:By pure chance he found the rare book he needed in a little store.在一家小店里他发现了他所需要的那本稀有的书,这纯属偶然。

purpose--purpose n.目的, 意图;用途The regulation failed to achieve its purpose.这一规定没有达到目的。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:for(the)purpose of 为了例如:Did you come to Texas for the purpose of seeing your family or for business purposes?你到得克萨斯来的目的是看望家人还是为公?I wouldn't go to London for the mere purpose of buying a new tie.我不会只为了买一条新领带而去伦敦。on purpose故意, 有意例如:I came here on purpose to see you.我是专程来看你的。She broke the dish on purpose just to show her anger.她故意打破那盘子以表示她的愤怒。

pursuit--pursuit n.追赶, 追求He was captured without much pursuit.没有追多久就把他抓住了。【考点】 pursuit常用在 in pursuit of这一搭配中, 表示“追赶”。例如:The police car raced through the streets in pursuit of another car.警车在街道上疾驶, 追赶另一辆汽车。

put--put v.放, 摆;记下, 写下The decision has been put in black and white.这项决议已经被写成文章。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:put across 解释清楚, 说明例如:The speaker had a good knowledge of his subject, but could not put it across.报告人对所讲的问题了解得很透彻, 但就是讲不清楚。He knew how to put his ideas across.他知道如何把他的思想表达清楚。put aside储存, 保留例如:We'd better put some money aside for future use.我们最好存一点钱将来用。Let's put the question aside for a while.这个问题咱们暂时搁一搁。

quarter--quarter n.四分之一;季;一刻钟He has done the quarter of a mile in 50 seconds.他用50秒跑完了四分之一英里。【考点】 注意quarter的名词复数形式, 还作“方面”、“地区”、“住处”讲。例如:People gathered from all quarters.人们从四面八方汇聚过来。We found excellent quarters at a small inn.我们在一家小旅馆找到了一个非常好的住处。

question--question v.询问;怀疑 n.问题, 议题They questioned the conservative candidate on his views.他们询问保守党候选人的看法。【考点】 in question正在谈论的例如:The woman in question is sitting over there.提到的那个女的就在那边坐着呢。The job in question is available three months only.所谈到的这一工作空缺为时仅三个月。

quiz--quiz n.小型考试, 测验, 问答比赛We had a quiz in English today.我们今天进行了一次英语测验。【考点】 quiz指一般性的问答比赛, 尤指电视或电台中人们竞相回答问题以测试其知识的活动, 现在也用来指课堂上的小型测验。quiz的复数形式需双写z, 再加es。例如:He will take part in a quiz.他将参加知识竞赛。

rack--rack n.挂物架, 搁物架He put the bottles of wine in a rack.他把那几瓶酒放到了架子上。【考点】 注意rack作动词, 意为“使痛苦”、“折磨”。例如:He was racked with pain.他极为疼痛。A coughing fit racked her whole body.他一阵咳嗽,全身都十分难受。

radical--radical adj.激进的;极端的I think that her opinions were very radical.我认为她的观点过于偏激。【考点】 radical作形容词, 还有“基本的”、“根本的”的意思。例如:He made a radical change in the plan.他在这计划里做了一个彻底的更改。There are radical differences between binary and decimal numeration.二进位和十进位计算有着根本的区别。

rage--rage n.愤怒His voice quivered with rage.他的声音因愤怒而颤抖。【考点】 rage指一种狂暴的、无法克制的愤怒, 甚至有时是丧失理智的。常用的搭配是fly into a rage, 表示“大发雷霆”。例如:He flies into a rage every time I mention money.我每次提到钱他都要大发雷霆。

raise--raise v.举起, 提高;增加;饲养Raise your hands up straight so that I can count them.把手向上举直, 这样我能点数。【考点】 注意raise作动词, 还作“引起”、“惹起”、“提出”讲。例如:Her joke raised a laugh.她的笑话引起了一场大笑。None of them raised any objection.他们谁也没有提出反对。

rally--rally n.& v.集合;集会A peace rally was held in Tokyo.在东京举行了一次和平集会。【考点】 注意rally作动词, 还特指“(健康等)恢复”、“(精神的)重新振作”。例如:He has just rallied from his illness.他刚康复。He soon rallied from the shock of his father's death.他很快就从父亲去世的打击中振作起来了。

random--random adj.随机的, 随意的An experienced hunter never fires random shots.有经验的猎人从不乱放枪。【考点】 random作名词, 作“随机”、“随意”讲, 只用在at random 中。例如:Soiled dishes were piled at random.脏碟子乱七八糟地堆着。He fired a shot at random.他随便开了一枪。

rapid--rapid adj.快, 急速的The school promised rapid results in the learning of languages.学校保证学语言效果很快。【考点】 rapid作名词, 意为“急流”、“湍滩”, 常以复数形式出现。例如:Shoot the rapids.穿过急流。The boatmen negotiate rapids in a boat with a marvelous dexterity.船工们极其灵巧地驾船越过湍滩。

rate--rate v.估价;评价 n.速度;等极He did not rate the machine above its real value.他没有对这台机器估价过高。【考点】 at any rate 无论如何, 至少例如:That's one part of the job done at any rate.不管怎么说, 这个工作已经做了一部分了。For the next six months, at any rate, she must stay.至少她在往后6个月必须留下。

rather--rather adv.相当, 有一点儿;宁愿She drives rather faster than she ought.她开车的速度比她正常的速度快多了。【考点】 rather 用来修饰不好的、消极的、否定的概念的情况较多。另外, rather与一个修饰名词的形容词在一起使用, 并且有不定冠词时, rather可以放在形容词之前, 也可放在不定冠词之前。如:a rather cold day或rather a cold day(相当冷的一天), 但如遇定冠词时, 一定要放在定冠词之后。

read--read v.朗读;看懂, 理解I can read your thought from your face.我可以从你脸上看出你的心思。【考点】 注意read还作“指明”、“标明”讲。例如:The thermometer reads 25℃.温度计标明摄氏25度。Ticket reads to Beijing via Shanghai.车票上写明经上海到北京。

rear--rear adj.后面的;背后的 n.后部, 尾部The driver switched on the rear lamps of the car.司机打开了车后灯。【考点】 注意rear作动词, 作“饲养, 抚养”讲。例如:He reared his children in America.他在美国养育子女。The mother was very careful in rearing her children.母亲非常细心地抚养她的子女。

reason--reason n.理由;理性The reason for the flood was all that heavy rain.这次水灾完全是那场大雨引起的。【考点】 by reason of 由于例如:The arrangement was cancelled by reason of his illness.因为他生病, 原先的安排被取消了。The scheme failed by reason of bad organization.由于组织不健全这计划失败了。

reckon--reckon v.认为, 估计;指望;计算They reckon the book as one of her best works.他们认为这本书是她最优秀的作品之一。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:reckon on依靠, 指望例如:I reckon on your being there on time. 我指望你准时到达那里。He's the sort of man you can't reckon on in a crisis.他是一个在紧要关头靠不住的人。reckon with 估计到, 预料到;处理, 对付例如:I didn't reckon with having to cook dinner for twenty unexpected guests.我不曾考虑到要为20名不速之客准备饭。I have to reckon with many problems every day.我每天要处理许多问题。

recommend--recommend v.推荐;劝告Could you recommend a good dictionary to me?你能给我推荐一本好词典吗?【考点】 recommend表示“建议, 劝告”, 后面跟宾语从句时, 从句中的谓语动词用虚拟语气,即“(should)+动词原形”。例如:The doctor recommended that I should stay a few more days in hospital.大夫建议我在医院再待几天。

refuse--refuse v.拒绝, 谢绝They offered him some money, which he refused politely.他们要给他一些钱, 他婉言谢绝了。【考点】 refuse作名词, 意为“废物”、“垃圾”。例如:The garbagemen took away all refuse from the streets.清洁工人把街上的垃圾全部运走了。

regard--regard v.把……看作为;考虑I regard your suggestion as worth considering.我觉得你的建议值得考虑。【考点】 注意regard的名词复数形式, 意为“敬重”、“问候”。例如:Mr.Smith sends his regards to you.史密斯先生向你致意。Give my regards to your friends!代我向你的朋友们问好!

reign--reign v.统治, 支配;盛行, 占优势Once he is crowned, the king will reign until he dies.只要一当上国王, 他就会一直统治下去, 到死为止。【考点】 reign是不及物动词, 跟宾语时要先接介词over。例如:He reigned over the country for ten years.他统治该国有10年之久。Silence reigned everywhere.万籁俱寂。

rejoice--rejoice v.(使)欣喜, (使)高兴I always rejoiced in my comrades' achievements.我总是为同志的成就感到高兴。【考点】 rejoice是正式书面语, 可作及物动词, 跟动词不定式或that从句作宾语, 也可以用作不及物动词, 跟宾语时常接介词at, over或in等。例如:He seemed much rejoiced at these changes.他似乎对这些变化感到很高兴。The parents rejoiced over what their daughter had done.父母为女儿所做的事而感到欣喜。

relation--relation n.关系, 联系The cost of this project bears no relation to the results.该项目的费用与其成果不相称。【考点】in/with relation to关系到例如:I have a lot to say in relation to that affair.关于那件事, 我有好多话要说。We must plan in relation to the future.我们制定计划必须考虑未来的因素。

relay--relay v.中继, 转播, 接力The church was crowded so electrical machinery was used to relay the service out to the people.教堂里挤满了人, 所以就用电机设备把礼拜仪式向外面的人转播。【考点】 注意relay作名词, 意为“接替人员”、“替班”。例如:New relays of men were sent to the battle.新补充的部队已送往前线。The coffin was borne in relays of men, 18 in number.棺材由18个人轮流抬着。

relieve--relieve v.减轻, 解除, 减少I was greatly relieved at the news.听到这个消息我甚感宽慰。【考点】 注意relieve作动词, 还可作“换班”、“换岗”讲。例如:The guard will be relieved at midnight.值勤半夜换班。You will be regarded at noon.你将在中午换班。

rely--rely v.依赖, 依靠;信赖 The town relies on the seasonal tourist industry for jobs.这个市镇依靠季节性旅游业提供就业机会。【考点】 rely是不及物动词, 跟宾语时要与on或upon连用, rely on/upon可以用于被动结构中。例如:She cannot be relied on to tell the truth.别指望她能说真话。

remains--remains n.剩物, 残余, 遗迹The martyr's remains are buried at the foot of the hill.烈士的遗体葬在山脚下。【考点】 比较remains和remainder:remains与remainder意义上很近, 但remains通常指死后, 或腐烂、消费等过程后所剩下的部分, 而remainder尤指数学的余数, 从而引申出整体中取走或用掉一部分, 或一群人中走掉一部分。例如:In the eagle's nest were the remains of a rabbit.在鹰巢里有剩下的兔子肉。Twenty people came in and the remainder stayed outside.20个人进来,其余的留在外面。

remember--remember v.记住, 记得I shall always remember that terrible day.我将永远记住那个可怕的日子。【考点】 注意remember作动词, 意为“转达问候”、“代……致意”, 后常接介词to。例如:Will you kindly remember me to your family?请代我问候府上各位。Mother asked to be remembered to you.母亲要我代她向你问好。

remove--remove v.排除, 消除, 去掉It is rather difficult to remove their doubts. 要消除他们的疑虑非常困难。【考点】 remove常与介词from连用, 表示“将某物从某物中(上)清除掉”。例如:How can I remove the stains from my coat?我上衣上的墨迹怎么才能去掉呢?She removed the dishes from the table.她取走了桌上的盘碟。
repeat--repeat v.重复, 重说, 重做I'll never repeat the same mistake.我决不会重犯同样的错误。【考点】 通常情况下, 用了repeat就不再用again, 以免重复。例如:He repeated the word several times.他把那个词重复了几遍。If you fail the first time, try again.如果你第一次失败了, 再试一次。

repent--repent v.后悔, 悔悟He has bitterly repented his folly.他十分后悔他的蠢行。【考点】 repent后可以直接跟宾语, 也可以跟of介词再跟动名词作宾语, 或者直接跟动名词作宾语。例如:I deeply repent of having deceived my husband.我因欺骗了丈夫而深感后悔。Do you repent having wasted your money so foolishly?你不后悔如此糊涂地乱花钱吗?

replace--replace v.放回, 替换, 取代;归还He replaced the book on the shelf. 他把书放回架子上。【考点】 replace表示“替换, 取代”时指人或物因某种原因的替换, 尤指是以旧换新, 其宾语多是被替换的对象, 而用介词 by或with引出接替者。例如:If you lose someone's pen, you should replace it with another one.如果你把别人的钢笔丢了, 你就应该赔他一支。Hand picks were quickly replaced by pneumatic picks and electric drills.手镐很快换成了风镐和电钻。

reply--reply v.& n.回答, 答复He replied by letter that he wasn't a man to shy at difficulties.他回信说他不是在困难面前畏缩的人。【考点】 reply和answer一样可用来回答问题, 但它比answer正式。可用作及物动词或不及物动词, 但reply的宾语都是回答的内容, 而一般没有reply sb.sth. 的用法, 但可以说reply to sb./sth.(向某人/某事做出回复)。例如:Have you replied to her letter?你给她回信了吗?He failed to reply to my question.他无法回答我的问题。

representative--representative n.代表, 代理人 adj.典型的;有代表性的Governments have formally accepted invitations to participate, through representative, in the congress.各国政府已正式接受邀请, 派遣代表参加会议。【考点】 表示某一集团、团体、组织等的代表, representative后通常用介词of, 但表示派驻某地的代表时, 则介词用to。例如:The tiger is a common representative of the cat family.老虎是猫科动物的普通代表。He was the first representative to Japan.他是第一个驻日代表。

reproach--reproach v.责备, 指责Every phrase in her letter reproached him.她信里全是指责他的话。【考点】 reproach指非气愤而是痛心地责备, 后面常与介词for或with连用。 reproach sb. /oneself for sth.表示“因未做成某事而责备某人或自己”; reproach sb. /oneself with sth.表示“指出过失而责备某人或自己”。例如:I have nothing to reproach myself for.我问心无愧。He reproached her with her false view of the working class.他指责她对工人阶级的错误观点。

research--research v.& n.研究, 调查We've been researching for three years, with no result.我们已经研究了3年, 仍无结果。【考点】 research无论作动词还是作名词, 后面总是接介词on或into, 表示在某个方面的研究。例如:She is researching into the effects of air pollution on forests.她在研究空气污染对森林的影响。They are doing research on diseases of the blood.他们正在对血液病进行研究。

reserve--reserve n.储备(物), 储备金;缄默As I require money quickly I must draw on my reserve. 由于急需一笔钱, 我只好动用自己的存款。【考点】 reserve常用在keep sth. in reserve的搭配中, 表示“把某物储备起来”。例如:I shall keep this in reserve until we need it.我将把这个东西保存起来, 需要时再用。

resolute--resolute adj.坚决的, 果断的Be resolute,fear no sacrifice and surmount every difficulty to win victory.下定决心, 不怕牺牲, 排除万难, 去争取胜利。【考点】 resolute后常接介词in, 再跟名词或动名词表示在某件事或某个行动方面很果断或坚决。例如:He was resolute in carrying out his plan.他坚决地实施他的计划。

respect--respect v.&n.尊敬, 尊重He rightly deserves respect for his scholarship.他学识渊博, 理应受到尊敬。【考点】(1)注意respect的名词复数形式, 意为“敬意”、“问候”。例如:Give him my kindest respects.请代我向他致以最亲切的问候。(2)with respect to关于例如:With respect to the recent flood, please report the number of sheep that were drowned.关于最近的水灾问题, 请把淹死的羊数报上来。With respect to your inquiry, I enclose an explanatory leaflet.关于你的询问, 兹附上有关说明资料。

respective--respective adj.各自的, 各个的You and I shall have got a respective holiday of two and three weeks.你我将分别有两星期和三星期的假期。【考点】 比较 respectable, respectful和respective:respectable有被动的含义, 表示“应受尊敬的(deserving respect)”的意思, 受尊敬的对象是句中的主语或所修饰的名词。它既可用作定语, 亦可用作表语。例如:His communist spirit is respectable.他的共产主义风格值得钦佩。respectful也可用作表语或定语, 其意为“尊敬的(showing respect)”, 表示主动含义, 后常接to或towards连接尊敬的对象。例如:He is always respectful to older people.他对年龄较大的人总是彬彬有礼。You should be respectful towards your parents.你应该尊重父母。respective一般用作定语, 它表示“各自的, 分别的”的意思。例如:Three Directors of Education explained how the problem was being dealt with in their respective areas.三位教育局长解释如何在各自所在的地区处理这个问题。

responsible--responsible adj.应负责的, 有责任的The pilot of the plane is responsible for the passengers' safety.飞机驾驶员应对旅客的安全负责。【考点】 比较responsible for和responsible to:这两个词组中的responsible是形容词, 一般多用在连系动词be后面作表语。两个词均表示“对(为)……负责”的意思, 但用法有别。responsible for后应接表示事物的名词或者动名词。在主语与介词宾语都是事物名词时, 其主语和宾语常会有因果关系,翻译的时候则要灵活对待。例如:The bad weather is responsible for the small attendance.由于天气恶劣, (所以)出席人数不多。responsible to后应接表示人的名词或代词。例如:Their duty is to hold themselves responsible to the children.他们的责任是对孩子们负责。

result--result n.结果, 成果 v.导致, 起因于He slipped and broke his leg. As a result, he will have to be away from school for two or three months.他滑倒, 腿断了。因此, 他将不得不休学两三个月。【考点】 注意result后面跟的不同的介词in与from的区别。result in表示前者是产生后者的原因, 后者是前者的结果, 译成“产生了……”; result from则相反, 译成“由……而引起”。例如:The accident resulted in the death of two passengers.这次事故造成两名乘客死亡。Nothing has resulted from my efforts.我的努力毫无结果。

retail--retail n.零售He buys at wholesale and sells at retail.他趸批零售。【考点】 retail常与介词at连用, 用作状语, 表示“零售”, 有时也说by retail。例如:This company doesn't sell its products by retail.这家公司不零售其产品。

retire--retire v.退休;退却;就寝My father retired at the age of 60. 我父亲60岁时退休。【考点】 retire表示“就寝”是正式说法, 等于 go to bed。例如:My children usually retire at 10.我的孩子们通常10点就寝。We must retire early as we have to catch an early train tomorrow.我们必须早点就寝, 因为明天要赶早班火车。

revolt--revolt v.反抗, 起义Unjust government often causes the people to revolt.政府失道常引起人民反抗。【考点】 revolt表示“反抗, 起义”, 是不及物动词, 跟宾语时后面通常接介词against,表示“对……进行反抗, 起义反对……”。例如:The people revolted against the military government.人民起义反抗军人政府。

reward--reward n.报酬, 奖金 v.酬劳, 奖赏He was given 500 as a reward for his bravery.他因表现勇敢而得到500美元的奖金。【考点】 reward无论作名词还是动词, 其后总跟介词for, 而不可接介词of, 表示“……的奖赏或报酬”或“酬谢……”。例如:She got nothing in reward for her kindness.对她的好意, 她没有得到任何报酬。Is this how you reward me for my help?你就这样报答我对你的帮助吗?

rid--rid v.使摆脱, 使去掉We should rid our ranks of all impotent thinking.我们应当在自己内部肃清一切软弱无能的思想。【考点】 get rid of摆脱, 除去例如:He can' t get rid of the cold.他伤风老是不好。Such criminals ought to be got rid of.这样的罪犯应当除掉。

right--right adj.正确的, 对的;恰当的;右边的;直角的 n.权利;右 面adv.对;直接地Your opinions are quite right.你的看法很正确。【考点】 right可作名词、形容词以及副词, 其含义很多, 但要特别注意它作形容词时, 还有“正常的”、“健康的”的意思。例如:He is not in his right mind.他处于神志不清的状态。Joan was feverish last night, but she is as right as a trivet this morning.琼昨晚发烧, 但今晨她完全好了。

ring--ring n.戒指, 铃声 v.按铃;打电话She wears a gold wedding ring to show that she's married.她戴一只金质结婚戒指, 表示她已经结婚了。【考点】 ring off挂断电话例如:Don't ring off; I haven't finished my story.别把电话挂断, 我的话还没说完呢。He rang off before I could explain.他还没有来得及解释, 我就把电话挂断了。

rise--rise v.起义, 奋起;上升;上涨 n.上涨, 增高;起源They will rise as one man to fight the aggressors.他们将万众一心, 起来和侵略者斗争。【考点】 give rise to 引起, 使发生例如:Social practice alone gives rise to human knowledge.只有社会实践才能产生人的认识。Such conduct might give rise to misunderstanding.这种行为可能会导致误解。It may give rise serious trouble.这可能会造成严重的麻烦。

road--road n.路, 道路, 途径Drive on the right side of the road.车辆靠右边行驶。【考点】 on the road在旅途中例如:How long were you on the road?你路上花了多长时间?He is on the road to Shanghai.他在去上海的途中。

room--room n.房间, 空间The hotel clerk assigned me a good room.旅馆招待给我安排了一个好房间。【考点】 room作名词, 还有“余地”之意。例如:There is no room for argument on that point.在那一点上没有辩论的余地。There's no room for doubt.没有怀疑的余地。

row--row n.(一)排;口角Children stand hand in hand in a row.孩子们手拉手站成一排。【考点】 注意row作动词, 作“划(船), 荡桨”讲。例如:They rowed the boat across the river.他们划船过了河。Can you row?你会划船吗?

rub--rub v.擦, 摩擦She tried to rub her tears away with the back of her hand.她想用手背擦掉眼泪。【考点】 rub out擦掉, 拭去例如:I can't get it to rub out.我用橡皮擦不掉它。Rub out the pencil marks, please.请擦掉铅笔记号。

rule--rule v.裁决;统治;支配 n.规章;习惯The court will rule on the matter.法院将对此事做出裁决。【考点】 as a rule通常, 照例例如:As a rule, he goes out early every morning looking for work.通常, 他每天一早出去找工作。As a rule we get home about six o'clock.通常我们在6点左右到家。

run--run v.奔跑;运转, 蔓延;行驶;经营Fire ran swiftly over the enemy barracks.火在敌军营地迅速蔓延。【考点】 注意下面几个短语的含义:run for竞选例如:As a result, 4, 258 candidates run for 491 seats.结果4, 285位候选人竞选491个席位。run off 复印, 打印例如:Can you run me off two hundred copies of this sheet by tomorrow?你明天前给我把这张纸复印200份好吗?in the long run最终, 从长远观点来看例如:In the long run, the best is unquestionably the cheapest.从长远来看, 最好的毫无疑问是最便宜的。

sack--sack n.袋, 包The sack split and the rice poured out.口袋裂开了, 大米撒了出来。【考点】 sack作动词, 意为“解雇”。例如:The football team has lost every game this season, so it has sacked its manager.该足球队在本赛季中输掉了全部的比赛, 所以把教练解雇了。One of the workers was sacked for drunkenness.一名工人因酗酒而被解雇。

safe--safe adj.安全的, 平安的, 牢靠的Are these toys safe for small children?这些玩具对小孩安全吗?【考点】 注意safe作形容词, 还有“可靠的”、“谨慎的”之意。例如:They appointed a safe person as the new manager.他们任命了一个可靠的人做新经理。The train is a safe means of transportation.火车是一种安全可靠的交通工具。

sake--sake n.缘故, 理由They pose as man and wife for decency's sake.为了面子关系, 他们对外装作夫妻。【考点】 for the sake of为了……起见, 看在……的份上例如:They voluntarily sacrifice the part for the sake of the whole.他们为了全局而自愿牺牲局部。For the sake of your family, don't take so many risks.看在你全家人的份上, 不要冒这么多险。

sale--sale n.贱卖, 上市We are holding an end-of-season sale.他们正在举行季末大减价。【考点】 on sale出售;贱卖例如:Every article on view will be on sale.每件展品都将出售。I got this hat on sale; it was very cheap.我这顶帽子是买削价的, 非常便宜。

same--same adj.相同的;上述的 pron. 同样的人或物Carol's house and Jane's house have the same number of rooms.卡罗尔的房子和简的房子有同样数目的房间。【考点】 注意下面几个短语的含义:all the same 仍然, 照样地例如:I wasn't able to use your screwdriver, but thanks all the same. 我没有用你的起子, 但还是要感谢你。the same as与……一致, 与……相同的例如:He is the same age as you.他和你同岁。

satisfy--satisfy v.满意, 使满意He seemed perfectly satisfied with my offer.看来他对我所提出的东西十分满意。【考点】 satisfy作“满意”讲是我们常见的意思, 但我们还应注意它还有“说服”的意思。例如:He satisfied me that he could do the work well.他使我确信他能把工作做好。I am satisfied of the truthfulness of his statement.我相信他的话是真实的。

scale--scale n.刻度;天平;比例尺;规模;鱼鳞This thermometer has two scales marked on it, one in Fahrenheit and one in Centigrade.这个温度计标着两种刻度, 一种是华氏度, 另一种是摄氏度。【考点】 on a large(small) scale大(小)规模地例如:They are preparing for war on a large scale.他们在大规模地备战。The movement was on a small scale.这项运动规模不大。

scarce--scarce adj.缺乏的, 不足的Good fruit is scarce in winter, and costs a lot.冬天好的水果不多, 而且很贵。【考点】 比较scarce和rare:scarce常指日常生活中某物奇缺或难以得到。例如:Water is scarce in the desert.沙漠中缺水。rare是指某物很难发现或某事很少发生, 而这些事或物过去也许是较普遍的。例如:A top hat is rare sight these days.高顶大礼帽现在很少见。

scare--scare v.恐吓, 受惊Don't let the noise scare you; it's only the wind.别让声音吓着你, 那只是风声。【考点】 scare常用其过去分词作表语, 后面可跟动词不定式、that从句、介词短语等。例如:I'm scared to fly in a plane. I'm scared that it might crash.我害怕坐飞机。我怕飞机可能坠毁。

schedule--schedule v.安排, 预定 n.时间表The President is scheduled for a speech tomorrow.总统定于明日发表演说。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:ahead of schedule 提前例如:They fulfilled the production plan ahead of schedule.他们提前完成生产计划。We arrived two minutes ahead of schedule.我们提前两分钟到达。on schedule按预定时间例如:The train arrived on schedule.火车正点到达。The strike will begin on schedule.罢工将按照预定时间开始。

scheme--scheme n.计划;安排 v.计划They are working at a scheme to prevent trouble at football grounds.他们正在实施防止足球赛场发生骚乱的安排部署。【考点】 注意scheme作名词或作动词时, 还有“阴谋”之意。例如:The enemy's scheme went bankrupt.敌人的阴谋破产了。They schemed for the overthrow of the government.他们阴谋推翻政府。

school--school n.学校;(大学里的)学院They're building a new school in the next street.他们正在旁边那条街上盖一所新学校。【考点】 school作名词, 还作“学派”、“流派”讲。例如:A new school of fiction has grown up.一种新的小说流派已经兴起。He founded a school of his own.他创立了自己的学派。

scold--scold v.责骂, 训斥I scolded him for having left the door open.我责骂他没有关门。【考点】 scold通常用作及物动词, 但有时也用作不及物动词, 跟宾语时, 首先要接介词at。例如:I hate to scold at you, son, but you mustn't stay out so late at night. 我不愿责骂你, 孩子, 但你千万不要夜里在外面逗留得这么晚。

scope--scope n.范围Such subjects are not within the scope of the book.这样的问题不在这本书的讨论范围之内。【考点】 注意scope作名词, 还作“机会”、“余地”讲。例如:No scope is given for his originality.没有给他发挥自己创造力的机会。There is little scope left for further activities.几乎没有留下进一步活动的余地。

scrape--scrape v.刮, 擦去Scrape the dinner plates before you put them in sink.将菜盘擦一擦再放在洗涤槽里。【考点】 scrape through擦过, 勉强通过例如:He scraped through a narrow opening.他勉强挤过一狭窄的洞口。She only just scraped through the test.她测试勉强及格。

scratch--scratch n.抓, 抓痕;起跑线Her hands were covered with scratch from the thorns.她手上有很多荆棘划的伤痕。【考点】 start from scratch从头做起, 从零开始例如:We had to start from scratch.我们不得不从头做起。He started his business from scratch.他做生意白手起家。

search--search v.搜索, 寻找, 探查He who would search for pearls must dive below.欲寻珍珠就要潜到水底。【考点】 search作为及物动词可以直接跟宾语, 但其宾语只能是搜查的场所, 而搜查的目标则需用for引起。例如:They are searching the village for guerrillas.他们在村子里搜查游击队员。

second--second adj.次等的;第二的 n.秒Germany is second to the United States in glass production.德国在玻璃生产方面仅次于美国。【考点】 second作动词, 意为“赞成”、“附和”。例如:Everyone seconded the proposal, and it was carried unanimously.大家都赞成这个建议, 并且一致执行。Mrs. Smith proposed the vote of thanks, and Mr.Jones seconded it.史密斯夫人提议大家鼓掌表示感谢, 琼斯先生赞成。

secondary--secondary adj.中等的;次要的Secondary schools means junior high school and high school.中等学校指的是初中和高中。【考点】 表示“比……次要”, 应该说be secondary to, 其中介词用to, 不能用than。例如:That problem is secondary to the one now facing us.跟我们已面对的问题相比, 那个问题只是次要的。Such considerations are secondary to our main aim of improving efficiency.对于我们提高效率的主要目的来说, 这些想法都是次要的。

secret--secret n.&adj.秘密(的)The treaty was secret and was not published until 1887.该条约是秘密的, 直到1887年才公开。【考点】 in secret秘密地, 私下地例如:She wept in secret.她暗暗哭泣。I was told about the matter in secret.这件事是别人私下告诉我的。

secure--secure adj.安全的, 可靠的, 放心的The strong-room is as secure as we can make it.我们的保险库建造得十分安全。【考点】 注意secure作动词, 有“得到, 获得”之意。例如:I hope to secure front seats at the concert.我希望能得到音乐会的前排座位。We have secured our tickets for the school play.我们已经得到了学校演出的票。

see--see v.看见;获悉, 知道;理解;会见;目睹I can see my idea was a bad one.我知道我的主意不好。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:see off给……送行例如:We all went to the airport to see him off.我们都去飞机场为他送行。He saw his friend off at the bus station.他到汽车站送朋友。see to注意, 负责, 照料;修理例如:See to it that there is enough leeway. 注意要留有充分余地。The electrician's come to see to the faulty light-switch.电工来修理发生故障的电灯开关了。

select--select v.选择, 挑选John's uncle let him select his own Christmas present.约翰的叔叔让他挑选自己的圣诞礼物。【考点】 注意select作形容词时, 意为“精选的”。例如:A select group of people were invited to the first performance.邀请一批经过仔细挑选的人参加第一次演出。The book is a select collection of poetry from various authors.这本书是许多作者的精选诗集。

send--send v.派遣;送, 寄I couldn't come myself, so I sent my friend.我不能亲自来, 所以派我的朋友来。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:send for派人去请, 召唤;索取例如:I'm the carpenter your master sent for.我就是你的主人派人叫来的木工。Don't delay, and send now for free catalogue.不要耽搁, 现在就来信索取免费目录册。send in呈报, 提交例如:He sent in his resignation.他提交了辞职书。Send in a bottle of wine, please.请送一瓶葡萄酒来。

senior--senior adj.资格老的, 地位高的;年长的They didn't want a senior officer with them.他们不想和高级军官在一起。【考点】 senior后面跟介词to表示“比……年长”, 其中to决不可改成than。例如:He is ten years senior to me.他比我大10岁。

sensation--sensation n.感觉, 知觉Working with one's head causes a sensation of hunger quite as much as muscular work.脑力劳动与体力劳动引起的饥饿感觉是完全一样的。【考点】 sensation还作“轰动”、“轰动一时的事情”讲。例如:His speech produced a great sensation among the audience.他的讲话在听众中引起很大的轰动。The news caused a great sensation.这个消息十分轰动。

sense--sense n.见识;意义;感觉;感官;判断力Haven't you got enough sense to know you can't spend more than you earn?难道你不知道量入为出吗?【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:in a sense从某种意义上说例如:You are right in a sense, but you don't know all the facts.从某种意义上说你是对的, 可是你不知道全部真相。What you say is true in a sense.你的话在某种意义上属实。make sense讲得通, 有意义, 言之有理例如:What you say makes no sense.你说的话没有道理。No matter how you read it, this sentence doesn't make any sense.这个句子不管你怎么读, 都看不出是什么意思。

sentence--sentence n.句子When you write a sentence, you must begin with a capital letter and end with a full stop.你在写一个句子时, 句子开头要用大写字母, 结尾用句号。【考点】 sentence还作“判决”、“宣判”讲, 此时既可作名词又可作动词。例如:The sentence was ten years in prison.这是一个10年徒刑的判决。He has been sentenced to pay a fine of 1, 000 pounds.他被罚款1,000英镑。

sequence--sequence n.连续;先后, 次序New employees had to attend a sequence of orientation meetings.新雇员必须参加一连串的培训会议。【考点】 in sequence 依次, 逐一例如:Calamities fall in rapid sequence.不幸事件接二连三地发生。I want you to describe all the events of that morning in sequence.我要你把那天早晨发生的所有事情一件件地描述一遍。

series--series n.一系列;丛书He had attended a series of important committee meetings.他已出席了一系列重要的委员会会议。【考点】 a series of表示“一系列, 一连串”, 注意, 当“a series of+复数名词”作主语时, 谓语动词用单数形式。例如:A series of tasks has been fulfilled.一系列的任务已经被完成。

serve--serve v.符合, 适用;服务;招待, 侍候I don't have a hammer, but this stone should serve(my purpose).我没有锤子, 这块石头也行。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:serve as作为, 用作例如:The sentence serves as a model.这个句子作为一个实例。It will serve as a specimen.这可用作标本。serve right活该, 给某人应得待遇例如:This punishment served him right.他得到这样的惩罚是罪有应得。It serves him perfectly right.他完全活该。

service--service n.服务, 帮助;行政部门I saw she was in difficulty with all those parcels, so I offered my services.我看到她处理那些包裹有困难便主动帮忙。【考点】 注意service作名词, 还作“公共设施, 公共事业”讲;作动词时, 有“维修, 保养”之意。例如:Essential services will be maintained. 基本的公用业务一定得到保障。There is a bus service between the two cities.城市之间有公共汽车相通。Has this mower been regularly serviced?这个割草机定期维修了吗?The repairman's gone to service the broken dishwasher.修理工已去维修一台坏的洗碗机了。

setting--setting n.底座;安置, 安装The ring has a ruby in a silver setting.这枚戒指的银底座上镶着一块红宝石。【考点】 setting作名词, 还作“环境, 背景”讲。例如:The trees make a lovely setting of the old church.树丛构成这座古老教堂的美丽背景。Our story has its setting in ancient Rome.我们这个故事的背景是古罗马。

settle--settle v.解决;安定;定居They settled the dispute among themelves.他们自己把这个争论解决了。【考点】 settle down定居, 过安定生活例如:When you have settled down, we will start work.当你已安定下来时, 我们将开始工作。When are you going to marry and settle down?你打算什么时候结婚过安定生活?

shade--shade n.荫, 阴影He could find no shade to stand in while waiting.在等待时他找不到可站的阴凉处。【考点】 比较shade和shadow;这两个词均可作名词, 意为“荫”、“阴影”, 但所指各不相同。shade多指遮住阳光时留下的阴凉空间,相对于heat。例如:He slept in the shade of the tree.他睡在树阴下。shadow指因物体挡住光线而形成的四周有光而当中无光的景象, 与light相对。例如:The tree cast its shadow on the wall.树影落在墙上。

shallow--shallow adj.浅的, 浅薄的They carried on a shallow conversation about parties and clothes.他们就宴会和服装进行了肤浅的交谈。【考点】 注意shallow的名词复数形式, 意为“浅滩, 浅处”。例如:There are dangerous rocks and shallows near the island.在那个小岛附近有危险的岩石和浅滩。The boys splashed in the shallows of the pond.孩子们在浅塘的浅水处溅水玩。

shape--shape n.形状, 外形;情况, 状态All circles have the same shape.所有的圆形状都一样。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:in shape处于良好状态例如:All he needs is a week's rest and he'll be back in shape.他只需要休息一周就会恢复健康。You'll never be in shape until you eat less and take more exercise.只有少吃多锻炼才能健美。take shape 成形例如:The plan is beginning to take shape in my mind.这个计划在我脑子里逐渐有了眉目。After months of work, the new book is gradually taking shape.经过几个月的努力, 这本新书渐渐像个样子了。

sharp--sharp adj.轮廓分明的;锋利的;急转的;敏锐的;刺耳的The Monument to the People's Heroes stands sharp against the blue sky.在蓝天的衬托下, 人民英雄纪念碑显得格外清晰。【考点】 注意sharp作副词, 特指时刻“正, 准”。例如:Please be here at seven(o'clock)sharp.请7点整到这里。His train came in at eight sharp.他乘坐的火车在8点正到达。

shed--shed v.发散, 脱去;流出 n.棚, 车库The lamp shed soft light on the desk.台灯柔和的光线照射在桌面上。【考点】 shed light on照亮, 解释例如:The torch shed a bright light on the path ahead.手电筒射出一道强光照亮了前面的小道。His book sheds some light on this subject.他的这本书稍稍解释了这个问题。

shift--shift v.转换, 移动 n.转换;(轮)班The wind shifted from the south to the west.风向由南转到西。【考点】 be on the day/night shift 上白/夜班例如:I just work on the night shift.我只上夜班。Bob always works on the day shift.鲍勃总上白班。

shopping--shopping n.买东西, 购货I have some shopping to do this afternoon.今天下午我要去买点东西。【考点】 do some shopping或go shopping都表示“购物”, 是常用搭配。例如:I usually do some shopping on Saturday.我通常在星期六购物。While she did some shopping we went to a kiosk and sat down to read.她去购货时, 我们去报摊坐下阅读。

short--short adj.缺乏的, 不足的;短的Water is short at this time of year.每年这个时候缺水。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:cut short中断, 简化例如:His life was cut short by cancer.癌症过早地结束了他的生命。I'll cut a long story short.我就长话短说吧。in short 简言之, 总之例如:You can't make me! I won't do it! In short, no!你说服不了我!我不会干的!总之, 不行!In short, I am going to live there myself.总之, 我打算自己住在那里。run short用完, 耗尽例如:Our money is running short.我们的钱快用完了。Our supplies ran short.我们的生活用品耗尽了。

shortly--shortly adv.简略地;立刻, 不久He answered my question rather shortly.他相当简略地回答了我的问题。【考点】 shortly常和after或before连用, 表示“在……之后(之前)不久”。例如:Shortly after he left, she arrived.他刚离开, 她就到了。The movie was over shortly before six.电影在6点钟不到就结束了。

shoulder--shoulder n.肩, 肩部The player injured his shoulder during the game.该运动员在比赛中伤了肩。【考点】 shoulder还可作动词, 意为“肩负”、“承担”。例如:He shouldered his pack and set off on his walk.他扛起行李上了路。She won't shoulder all the blame for the mistake.她不承担该过失的全部责任。

show--show v.显示, 呈现;表明, 证明Don't worry about that dirt on your pants. It won't show.不要担心你裤子上那点脏, 显不出来。【考点】 show off炫耀, 卖弄例如:He showed off his new suit.他炫耀他的新衣服。The child danced around the room, showing off to everybody.那个孩子满屋子跳舞, 向大家炫耀一番。

sick--sick adj.恶心的;有病的He began to feel sick when the ship started to move.船开始移动, 他开始恶心。【考点】 sick of厌烦例如:I'm sick of waiting around like this.我腻烦像这样在一旁等着。Get out! I'm sick of the sight of you!滚出去!一见到你我就觉得讨厌。

side--side n.侧面;一边The front door is locked; we'll have to go around to the side of the house.前门锁了, 我们得绕到侧门走。【考点】(1)side作动词, 作“同意”、“站在……的一边”讲。例如:She sided with her brother against the others in the class.她在班上支持哥哥反对其他同学。Mother sided with David against Father in the argument.母亲在争论中站在大卫一边反对父亲。on the side作为兼职, 额外例如:He takes a night job on the side.他兼任一项夜间的工作。He's a teacher, but he makes a little money on the side by repairing cars in his free time.他是个老师, 但是他业余时间里还修理汽车挣一点钱。

sight--sight n.视力;视野;情景I watched him until he disappeared from sight in the distance.我目送他直到消失在远处。【考点】 catch sight of发现, 突然看见例如:If you catch sight of William, ask him to come and see me.如果你见到威廉, 叫他来见我。I caught sight of her hurrying away.我看见她匆匆忙忙地走了。

silence--silence n.寂静, 沉默The silence was broken by a loud cry.一声大叫打破了沉默。【考点】 注意silence的两个常用搭配:in silence沉默地, 一言不发例如:They walked on in silence.他们继续走着, 一言不发。keep silence保持沉默例如:Sophia kept her silence.索菲亚保持沉默。

silver--silver n.银器, 银币;银He was put to work on cleaning the silver.他被派去干擦净银器的活。【考点】 silver作动词, 作“镀银”、“使成银白色”讲。例如:He is silvering the back of a mirror. 他在镜子背面镀银。The years has silvered her hair.岁月已使她的青丝似雪。

since--since conj.因为, 既然;自从, 从……以来 adv.后来, 自那以后Since you can't answer this question, I'll ask someone else.既然你回答不了这个问题, 我再去问别人。【考点】 ever since从那时起, 自那时以来例如:He went to Turkey in 1956 and has lived there ever since.他在1956年前往土耳其, 以后一直住在那里。He has been here ever since Monday.自从星期一以来, 他一直在这里。

sit--sit v.(使)坐, (使)就座The doctor sat up all night with the patient.医生彻夜守着病人。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:sit for参加例如:More students than ever before have sit for their law examination this year.今年参加法律考试的学生比以往都多。He will sit for his B. A. next June.明年六月他要参加文学士考试。sit in列席, 旁听例如:The teacher allowed a pupil to sit in on their meeting.老师允许一名学生列席他们的会议。We're having a conference and we'd like you to sit in.我们正在举行会议, 想请你旁听。

slim--slim adj.苗条的She eats very little in order to keep slim.她吃得很少以便保持苗条。【考点】 slim作形容词用来描述女性因人瘦而好看, 故slim作动词时, 意为“节食等减轻体重”、“变苗条”。例如:I don't want any cake;I'm trying to slim.我什么蛋糕都不吃, 我在减肥。Do you know how to slim the waist?你知道怎样使腰围变细吗?

slip--slip v.滑倒;滑落The old lady slipped and fell on the ice.老太太在冰上滑了一下跌倒了。【考点】 注意slip作名词, 作“疏忽”、“口误”、“笔误”讲。例如:There were a few trivial slips in the translations.译文中有几处小错误。A few slips in youth are inevitable.青年人有些过失在所难免。That remark was a slip of the tongue.那句话是失言。

sly--sly adj.狡猾的, 偷偷摸摸的It was sly of you not to tell us you'd already met.你们真坏, 已经见了面还瞒着我们。【考点】 on the sly偷偷地, 冷不防地例如:She must have been having lessons on the sly.她准是暗地里一直在上课。Some boys smoke on the sly.有些男孩子偷偷地吸烟。

smell--smell v.散发……气味;闻到Factory waste has smelled up the creek.工厂的污水使这条小河臭气熏天。【考点】(1)smell常用于“主语+smell+形容词”或“主语+smell+of+名词”的结构中来描述某物的气味。例如:Those roses smell beautiful!那些玫瑰好闻极了。The railway carriage smell of beer and old socks.那节车厢有啤酒和脏袜子味。(2)smell也可以与人称主语连用, 表示人们的感觉。例如:I can smell supper.我能闻到晚饭的味道。

smooth--smooth adj.平稳的;光滑的;平静的;顺利的Despite the bad weather, the pilot made a smooth landing.尽管天气不好, 飞行员仍安全着陆。【考点】 smooth作动词, 意为“掩饰”、“调停”、“平息”。例如:It will be difficult for you to smooth over your differences after so many years.经过了这么多年, 你想消除你们之间的分歧谈何容易。I'll try to smooth their quarrel over.我将设法平息他们的争吵。

soil--soil n.泥土, 土地, 土壤Central and South America and more especially Brazil, have a soil of extraordinary fertility.中美洲和南美洲, 尤其是巴西, 具有极其肥沃的土地。【考点】 作动词, 作“弄脏”、“(使)变脏”讲。例如:That little boy has soiled his trousers.那个男孩把裤子弄脏了。This material soils easily.这种料子不耐脏。

sole--sole adj.单独的, 惟一的Phil is the sole heir to all that property.菲尔是所有那些财产的惟一继承人。【考点】 sole作名词, 有“脚垫”、“鞋底”之意。例如:For hiking women wear shoes of stout leather with heavy soles and flat heels.妇女徒步旅行时穿结实的厚底平跟皮鞋。The soles are thick.鞋底很厚。

solution--solution n.答案, 解决办法;溶解, 溶液That problem was hard. Its solution required many hours.那个问题很难, 解答它要几个小时。【考点】 表示“……的解决办法”, 应该说solution to, 其中介词to不能改用of。例如:She can find no solution to her financial troubles.她找不到解决经济困难的途径。It is difficult to find a solution to this question.很难找到这一问题的解法。

someone--someone pron.有人, 某人I saw someone pass; but I don't know who it was.我看见有人走过, 但不知道是谁。【考点】 在疑问句、否定句及条件从句中, 通常用anyone, 而不用someone, 但在某些情况下(如表示较肯定的意思, 提出请求等)也可以使用someone。例如:Will you ask someone to carry this bag for me, please?请叫人帮我拿一下这个包吧。

soon--soon adv.不久, 即刻;早, 快We shall be home quite soon now.我们很快就可以到家了。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:no sooner… than ……就, 刚……便例如:No sooner had he arrived than he was asked to leave again.他刚到就被支走了。No sooner said than done.说了就做。sooner or later迟早, 早晚例如:You should tell her, because she'll find out sooner or later.你还是告诉她吧, 因为她迟早会发觉的。They are bound to create trouble sooner or later.他们迟早一定会找麻烦的。

sophomore--sophomore n.(大学)二年级学生The sophomores defeated the freshmen by 2∶1.二年级的学生2比1击败了一年级学生。【考点】 sophomore多指美国大学或中学的二年级学生, 另外, 一年级学生是freshman, 三年级学生是junior, 四年级学生是senior。

sorry--sorry adj.遗憾的, 对不起的If you say you're really sorry, I'll forgive you.如果你说声“真对不起”, 我是会原谅你的。【考点】 sorry作形容词, 还作“可怜的”讲。例如:He was a sorry sight in his dirty and torn old clothes.他穿着又脏又破的旧衣服, 一副可怜的样子。The old woman was in sorry clothes.这个老妇人穿得很寒酸。

sound--sound v.听起来, 发声 n.声音Your idea sounds like a good one.你的想法听起来不错。【考点】 注意sound作形容词时的几个意思:①健全的, 完好的例如:The doctor says I have a sound constitution.医生说我的体格很结实。②正当的, 有根据的例如:The view is morally sound.这一观点在道德上是高尚的。③彻底的, 充分的例如:A night's sound sleep made me feel much better.一夜的酣睡使我感到好受多了。

spare--spare v.节约, 节省, 抽出(时间)adj.多余的No trouble was spared to make sure they enjoyed themselves.不辞劳苦, 务必使他们满意。【考点】 注意spare作形容词, 有“备用的”的意思。如:a spare room(备用房间); a spare tyre(备用轮胎); spare parts(备用零件)等。例如:Do you carry a spare wheel in your car?你的汽车上有备用车轮吗?

specialist--specialist n.专家One time I kind of becoming an X ray specialist.从前我有些想成为一名X射线专家。【考点】 表示“在……方面的专家”, 用 a specialist in结构。例如:Dr Brown is a specialist in chest diseases.布朗博士是胸腔疾病专家。My cousin is a specialist in Chinese studies.我堂弟是一位汉语言学专家。

specimen--specimen n.标本, 样本The teacher showed us some specimens of wild flowers.教师给我们看了一些野花的标本。【考点】 比较sample和specimen:这两个词都有“样品”、“样本”之意。sample在很大程度上只用于商业。例如:The salesman showed samples.售货员拿样品给顾客看。specimen多用于科学技术研究中, 诸如医学临床化验采样、动植物及矿物标本等。例如:There are some fine specimens of rocks and ores in the museum.博物馆里有些很好的矿石和岩石标本。The doctor took a specimen of my blood to see if I had malaria.医生采了血, 看我是否得了疟疾。

speculate--speculate v.推测, 推断We can only speculate about what will happen next.我们只能推测下一步会发生什么情况。【考点】 speculate作动词, 还作“投机”讲。例如:He speculated in foreign exchange and lost a lot of money.他做外汇投机而赔了许多钱。His uncle has been charged with speculating in foreign currency.他舅舅被指控进行外币投机买卖。

speed--speed v.急行, 加速The ambulance sped to the hospital.救护车迅速向医院驶去。【考点】 speed up使加速例如:I asked them to speed the delivery up.我请他们加快发货速度。The company president wants us to speed up production of the new car.公司董事长要我们加速生产新汽车。

spirit--spirit n.精神, 气概We have spirit to fight the enemy to the last drop of our blood.我们有同敌人血战到底的气概。【考点】 注意spirit名词复数形式, 其一作“情绪, 心情”讲;其二作“酒精, 烈酒”讲。例如:The bad news depressed his spirits.那个坏消息使他情绪低沉。I prefer spirits to beer.我喜欢喝烈性酒, 不喜欢喝啤酒。

spite--spite n. 恶意;怨恨I'm sure he took my parking space just out of spite.我确信他占了我的停车位置是出于恶意。【考点】 in spite of不管, 不顾, 尽管, 虽然例如:They went out in spite of the rain.尽管下着雨, 他们还是出去了。In spite of all his riches, he is never contented.尽管他很富有, 他从来也不感到满足。

spot--spot n.地点, 场所;斑点, 污点Children are fond of rotating in one spot until dizzy.孩子们喜欢在原地旋转, 直到头发晕。【考点】 on the spot当场, 在现场例如:Wherever she's needed she's quickly on the spot.哪儿需要她, 她就很快地到哪儿去。The police were on the spot within a few minutes of hearing about the crime.获悉该项犯罪后几分钟, 警察即赶到现场。

spring--spring n.弹簧, 发条;泉水;春天Motorcars have springs above the wheels.汽车的轮子上方有弹簧。【考点】 spring作动词, 意为“跳”、“跳跃’。例如:He sprang over the stream without much difficulty.他轻而易举地跳过了小溪。He sprang up from his seat.他从座位上跳起来。

stab--stab v. 刺, 戳Mother's scold stabbed her to the heart.母亲的责骂刺伤了她的心。【考点】 stab用作及物动词或不及物动词均可, 用作不及物动词跟宾语时, 多与介词at连用。例如:The big man stabbed at the security guard with a knife.那个大个子用匕首刺向保安。

stage--stage n.阶段, 时期;舞台, 戏剧The proposal has not yet passed the discussion stage.这个提案还没有通过讨论阶段。【考点】 (go)on the stage当演员例如:When she was five years old, she decided that she wanted to go on the stage. 她5岁时就下决心从事戏剧工作。

stake--stake n. 赌注, 利害关系;桩, 标桩He has a deep stake in the business.他和这个业务有极大的利害关系。【考点】 at stake在危险中, 利害攸关例如:His life was at stake.他有生命危险。His reputation was at stake.他面临身败名裂的危险。

stamp--stamp n. 邮票, 印;标志The document bears the regimental stamp.文件上盖有团部的印章。【考点】 注意stamp作动词, 有“跺脚”、“盖章”的意思。例如:She was stamping around in the cold trying to keep her feet warm.她因天气冷而跺脚想让脚保持暖和。They didn't stamp my passport.我的护照上没盖章。

stand--stand v. 经受, 忍受;位于;坚持, 站立This work will not stand close examination.这项工作经不起仔细检查。【考点】 注意下面几个与stand有关的短语:stand for代替, 代表, 意味着例如:CPC stands for the Communist Party of China. CPA.是中国共产党的英语名称缩写。stand out突出, 显眼例如:His work stands out from others.他的作品显然胜过他人的。stand up for为……辩护, 维护例如:Always stand up for your friends.要永远维护朋友的利益。stand up to勇敢地面对, 坚持抵抗, 经得起例如:It was brave of her to stand up to those bullies.她挺身反抗那些恃强欺弱的人, 真勇敢。Your argument just won't stand up to close scrutiny.你的论点经不起仔细推敲。

step--step n.步骤;脚步;台阶Take such steps as you think best.按你认为最好的步骤办吧。【考点】 注意下面几个与step有关的短语:in step同步, 合拍例如:They were not in step with the times.他们跟不上时代的步伐。step by step逐步例如:Step by step they were getting to the top.他们一步步接近山顶。step up提高, 加快, 加紧例如:My salary was stepped up last week.我上周加薪水了。The two supper powers are stepping up their contest for world hegemony.两个超级大国正在加紧争夺世界霸权。

stern--stern adj.严厉的;坚定的Police are planning sterner measures to combat crime.警方在制定更为严厉的措施来打击犯罪活动。【考点】 stern后总是跟with连用, 表示“对……严厉或苛刻”。例如:He's much too stern with his son.他对儿子太严格了。

stick--stick v. 刺, 粘贴Stick the fork into the potato.用叉子插土豆。【考点】 stick to坚持;忠于;信守例如:If you stick to the truth, you have nothing to fear.如果你坚持真理, 就没有什么可害怕的。He always sticks to his country.他始终忠于自己的国家。You should stick to your word.你应该遵守诺言。

still--still adv. 更, 还要;仍旧;静止It's cold now, but it'll be still colder at night.现在很冷, 但是夜里更冷。【考点】 still一般与动词连用, 放在句中, 用来说明过去开始的情况或动作仍在继续, 特别是用来说明我们希望它早些停止, 或因为它还没有停止我们感到惊异, 多用于肯定句中, 但也可用于疑问句和否定句中。

stock--stock n.股票, 公债;备料, 现货Father owns some stock in that railroad.父亲在那条铁路上有些股份。【考点】 in stock储存例如:The book is in stock.该书有库存。Have you any grey pullovers in stock?你们有灰色套头毛衣的现货吗?

stormy--stormy adj.暴躁的;激烈的;有暴风雨的His speech was frequently interrupted by stormy applause.他的演说不时地被暴风雨般的掌声打断。【考点】 比较stormy与violent:stormy用于情感, 指很急躁、很激动, 但不一定会产生不幸或不愉快的后果。例如:The stormy friends' quarrel ended in agreement.这对朋友之间的激烈争吵以取得一致意见而告终。violent“暴力的”, 用于人的动作时, 常指有伤害性的恶毒行为。例如:The madman was violent and had to be locked up.那个疯子很凶狂, 必须锁起来。

stress--stress n.压力, 应力;重音The landlord has imposed a severe stress on the poor tenants.房东给贫苦的房客们施加了很大的压力。【考点】 比较strain和stress:这两个词都有“紧张’的意思。strain 常指“过分吃力”、“过度努力”的紧张状态;stress则强调承受外来的压力。例如:She's under a great strain at the moment; her child is very ill.她此时很忧虑, 她的孩子病得很厉害。High winds put great stress on the structures.大风作用于该建筑物上而产生巨大的压力。

stride--stride v.大步走 n.迈步The tall man strides rapidly down the street.那高个儿迈着大步迅速地沿着街道走去。【考点】 注意下面两个与stride有关的短语:stride over/across跨越例如:He strode over the stream.他跨过小溪。When he attempted to stride over the fence, he fell off the horse.当他打算跨过篱笆的时候, 从马上摔了下来。take sth. in(one's) stride轻而易举地做例如:The well-trained mechanic took every technical problem in stride.这个技师训练有素, 很快就解决了所有的技术难题。

strive--strive v.奋斗, 努力He strove for the prize in mathematics.他为获得数学奖而奋斗。【考点】 strive against/with与……做斗争例如:Martin Luther King strove against racial discrimination and even died for it.马丁·路德·金与种族歧视做斗争并为此献身。

stroke--stroke n.一击;敲;一次努力;报时的钟声He painted the picture in a few strokes.他几笔就把那幅油画完成了。【考点】 stroke作动词或名词, 均有“抚摸”之意。例如:Give your hair 50 strokes with a brush everyday.每天用刷子刷头发50下。She gently stroked his arms.她轻轻地抚摸他的双臂。The cat likes being stroked.猫喜欢被抚摸。

study--study v.学习, 研究I'd give anything to study medicine at Winton University.我无论如何要在温顿大学学医。【考点】 注意study作动词, 还作“细察”、“仔细端详”讲。例如:Scientists are studying the photographs of Mars for signs of life.科学家在仔细察看火星照片, 看有没有生命的迹象。I'll get a little closer, and study up on him.我要再靠近些, 好仔细端详他一番。

succeed--succeed v.成功;继承She succeeded the second time she took the examination.她第二次考试通过了。【考点】 succeed表示“成功”, 是不及物动词。要表示“在……方面或做某事取得成功”, 就应该说succeed in sth./doing sth.。例如:I have succeeded in persuading him.我成功地说服了他。If you succeed in this, you and I can do things together.如果这项工作成功的话, 我们可以一起干。

succession--succession n.连续;继任A succession of accidents spoiled our automobile trip.一连串的肇事破坏了我们的汽车旅行。【考点】 in succession连续地例如:His words came out in quick succession.他说话像打机关枪一样快。Many soldiers in succession fell the attempt.许多战士在这次攻击中相继阵亡。

sudden--sudden adj.突然的, 意外的His death was awfully sudden.他的死是极为突然的。【考点】 all of a sudden突然例如:All of a sudden, the tyre burnt.轮胎突然爆裂了。All of a sudden, the lights went out.突然, 灯熄灭了。

suit--suit v.合适, 相配 n.一套衣服He found he wasn't suited for/to the job and left after three months.他发现他不适合做那项工作, 于是3个月后便离开了。【考点】 注意suit作名词, 还有“起诉”之意。例如:She brought a suit for damages against him.她为自己所受到的损害对他起诉。The district attorney has a good suit against the embezzler.区检察长对盗用公款者提出起诉。

sum--sum v.合计, 总计 n.总和;金额Contribution summed into several thousand yuan.捐款总数达好几千元。【考点】 注意下面与sum有关的短语:in sum总而言之例如:In sum, the plan failed.总之, 计划告吹了。In sum, Mr. Morgan's report wasn't perceptive at all.总之, 摩根先生的报告讲得一点也不透彻。sum up总结, 概括例如:The foregoing considerations may be summed up in a few words.上述各种考虑可以用几句话概括起来。It may be briefly summed up as follows.这可以简短地概括如下。

sure--sure adj.肯定的, 确定的;可靠的It is possible that he did so, but I'm almost sure that he did not.他有可能这么做, 但我几乎可以肯定他没有这么做。【考点】 make sure查明, 弄确定例如:I think there's train at 10∶40, but you'd better make sure.我想10点40分有火车, 但你最好查清楚。I think he's coming today but I'll telephone to make sure.我想他今天要来, 但我将打电话证实一下。

survive--survive v.幸免于, 幸存;比……长命Of the six people in the plane that crashed, only one survived.在失事飞机上的六个人, 仅一人幸存。【考点】 survive既可用作及物动词, 也可用作不及物动词, 尤其是表示“比……长命”时, 属于及物动词, 直接跟宾语。例如:Insurance statistics show that most wives survive their husbands.保险统计表明, 大多数妻子比其丈夫长寿。

swift--swift adj. 快速的, 敏捷的He gave them a swift reply.他迅速回答了他们。【考点】 swift相对于quick来说比较正式, 多作定语。有时候也作表语, 后跟动词不定式, 表示“动不动就, 易于”。例如:He was swift to take offense.他动不动就生气。

sympathetic--sympathetic adj.同情的, 共鸣的He was enormously sympathetic when my father died.我父亲去世时他深为同情。【考点】 sympathetic后常接介词to或towards, 有时也用with, 表示“对……表示同情”, 尤其是对遇到麻烦的人抱有同情心。例如:I cannot feel sympathetic to/towards them.我不能对他们表示同情。We are all sympathetic with sufferers.我们都对受难者表示同情。

symphony--symphony n.交响乐, 交响曲Symphonies are played by a symphony orchestra.交响乐曲由交响乐团演奏。【考点】 symphony作名词, 还有“(色调)和谐, 协调”之意。例如:In autumn the woods are a symphony in red, brown and yellow.秋天的树林是红、褐、黄三种协调的色彩。

tackle--tackle v.处理, 解决 n.用具, 滑车We must tackle the problem of poverty as soon as possible.我们必须尽快解决贫困问题。【考点】 tackle sb. on/over/aboutsth. 就某事与某人交涉例如:He use all means possible to tackle the vicious lawyer over the estate issue.他用尽一切手段就财产问题向奸猾的律师交涉。

talk--talk v.讨论;说话 n.谈话;演讲I have an important matter to talk over with you.我有一件重要的事要和你商量。【考点】 注意下面与talk有关的短语:talk back回嘴, 顶嘴例如:Don't talk back like that!别那样回嘴!The girl was disciplined at school for talking back to the teacher.那女孩因跟老师顶嘴在学校受到了惩罚。talk into说服例如:He tried to talk Martin into making concession.他试图说服马丁做出让步。

tap--tap v.&n.轻叩, 轻敲I tapped on the window to let them know I'd arrived.我轻叩窗户, 让他们知道我已经到了。【考点】 注意tap作动词, 还作“利用”、“开发”讲。例如:The country must tap new sources of energy.国家必须开发新的能源。We should tap this kind of new resource to save the traditional energy.我们应利用这种新资源来节省传统能源。

team--team n.小队, 小组He is a member of the economic advisory team.他是经济顾问组的成员。【考点】 team作动词用, 表示“协同工作”, 其后总是跟up连用。例如:They decided to team up.他们决定协同工作。The farmers teamed up to get the crops in.农民们协手合作收获作物。

tear--tear v.撕(下) n.眼泪Why did you tear the cloth instead of cutting it with scissors?你为什么撕布而不用剪刀剪呢?【考点】 in tears流着泪, 含泪, 哭例如:She was in tears as she told the story of what had happened.她一边流泪一边讲述事情发生的经过。She was in tears when she heard the news.听到这一消息, 她眼里充满了泪水。

tell--tell v.辨别;告诉Can you tell her from her twin sister?你能分得出她和她的孪生姐妹吗?【考点】 tell作动词, 还作“泄露秘密”、“告发(某人)”讲。例如:If I whisper my secret to you, will you promise not to tell?如果我告诉你我的秘密, 你能保证不告诉别人吗?The secret was leaked at last, and he was the only one in position,so he must have told.秘密最后泄露, 他是惟一的知情者, 一定是他走露的风声。

tender--tender adj.脆弱的;嫩的;敏感的Keep the tender flowers away from the strong sunlight.不要让强烈的阳光照在柔弱的花朵上。【考点】 注意, tender作动词, 作“提供”、“投标”讲。例如:The senator tendered his resignation.这位参议员提出了辞呈。Several firms have tendered for building the new school.几个公司已投标建造这所学校。

thank--thank v.&n.感谢I don't know how I can adequately thank you for your help.我不知道该怎么好好感谢你的帮助。【考点】 thanks to由于, 幸亏例如:Thanks to your stupidity, we lost the game.因为你笨, 我们才输了这场比赛。Thanks to you, I was saved from drowning.幸亏有你我才没有被淹死。

then--then adv.那么, 因此;在那时;于是Then, she must be at the bathroom.那么, 她一定在浴室里。【考点】 and then而且, 其次, 于是, 然后例如:And then there are other things to be taken into account.而且还有其他需要考虑的事情吧。He went to Shanghai and then to Hangzhou.他到了上海接着又到了杭州。

think--think v.想;认为;考虑Do you still think in English when you're speaking French?你讲法语时还用英语思维吗?【考点】(1)think引起一个否定概念时, 总是把否定词not放在think的前面。例如:I don't think he will come.我想他不会来了。(2)一般情况下, think不与动词不定式连用, 除了think用在被动语态中外。例如:She was thought to be a terrorist.她被认为是个恐怖分子。

thought--thought n.思想;思维;想法Before you begin to make a speech, you should collect your thoughts.在你开始发表演说之前, 你应当集中思想。【考点】 on second thoughts经重新考虑, 一转念例如:On second thoughts, I am inclined to agree with you.经过重新考虑, 我倾向于同意你的意见。On second thoughts he decided to stay in England.经过重新考虑之后, 他决定留在英国。

threat--threat n.恐吓, 威胁The threat of flood has been relieved.洪水的威胁解除了。【考点】 threat作名词, 还有“坏兆头”、“危险迹象”之意。例如:There was a threat of typhoon.有刮台风的坏兆头。She got a fever which is a threat to a cancer patient.她发烧了, 这对于癌症病人来说是个坏兆头。

threaten--threaten v.恐吓, 威胁The farmer threatened to beat the boy if he came into the field again.如果那男孩再到田里来, 该农民威胁要揍他。【考点】 threaten作动词, 还作“快要来临”讲。例如:The dark clouds threatened a big storm.乌云预示暴风雨的来临。It threatens to snow immediately.似乎马上就要下雪了。

throw--throw v.扔, 抛, 投He threw the grenade 50 metres.他把手榴弹投出50米。【考点】 throw后常跟介词at或to, 但它们意义有区别。throw sth. at sb. 表示“扔……”, 含有挑衅的意义。例如:Stop throwing stones at the car.不要再往汽车上扔石头。而throw sth. to sb. 表示“把……扔给”, 是说明双方是在做游戏等。例如:He threw the ball to me.他把球抛给了我。

ticket--ticket n.票, 入场券I was offered two free tickets to the performance.我得到了两张免费观看演出的入场券。【考点】 注意ticket还特指交通违章的“罚款传票”。例如:He got a parking ticket.他接到违章停车罚款单。The driver received a ticket of fine for he parked at the wrong place.司机收到了罚款条, 因为他违章停车。

tilt--tilt v.& n.(使)倾斜, (使)倾侧With each wave the sinking ship tilted over further.每打一个浪, 船倾斜得就更厉害一些。【考点】 at full tilt全速地, 全力地例如:His car ran at full tilt against the tree.他的车子猛地撞在了树上。He rushed down the street at full tilt.他全速地沿街冲去。

time--time n.时代;时机;时间She did not understand the spirit of the times.她不理解时代精神。【考点】 注意下面几个与time有关的短语:at no time 从不, 决不例如:At no time will China be the first to use nuclear weapons.中国在任何时候决不首先使用核武器。for the time being目前, 暂时例如:You'll have your office soon but for the time being you'll have to share one.你很快就有自己的办公室了, 不过暂时还得和别人合用一间。That's enough for the time being.那暂时够了。take one's time不急不忙, 从容进行例如:Take your time----there's no hurry.慢慢来——不着急。He liked to take his time over breakfast.他喜欢从从容容地吃早饭。

toast--toast v.&n.烘(面包);烧(面包)Mother is toasting bread for lunch.妈妈在烤面包片作午餐。【考点】 注意toast还有“祝酒”之意, 此时, 既可作名词, 又可作动词。例如:Let's drink a toast to our friends!让我们为我们的朋友干杯!Let's all toast the bride and groom!让我们为新娘新郎干杯!

token--token n.纪念品;标志;记号;表示This photo album is a feeble token of our warm friendship.这本相册是我们深厚友谊的一件小小纪念物。【考点】 by the same token由于同样原因, 同样地例如:She had never seen such poverty before, and by the same token could not quite believe it.她从来没有看到过如此的穷困, 而且她也不能相信竟有如此的贫困存在。By the same token, we should like to thank your wife.同样我们要感谢你的妻子。

tolerance--tolerance n.容忍, 耐性Many old people have a very limited tolerance to cold.许多老年人的耐寒力很有限。【考点】 注意tolerance还作“公差”讲。例如:This wood beam was made to have a tolerance of 0.001 inches.这木梁做得容许有0.001英寸的误差。

top--top n.顶部, 最高位 adj.最高的The output of grain and cotton in 1990 has reached the all-time top.1990年的粮棉产量达到了历史最高点。【考点】 on top of在……之上例如:He put this books on top of hers.他把书放在她的书上面。That high hill has a tower on top of it.那座高山顶上有座塔。

touch--touch v.涉及;感动;触动 n.触动The question touches your interests closely.这个问题与你的利益有密切的关系。【考点】 注意下面与touch有关的短语:touch on关系到, 涉及例如:He merely touched on this question.他很少谈到这个问题。Our conversation touched on many subjects.我们的谈话涉及到许多问题。touch up润色, 改进例如:He touched up the painting.他对这幅画进行了润色。If you will write the article, I'll go over it and touch it up for you.如果你写这篇文章, 我来检查并为你修改。

track--track n.轨迹;小路We followed his tracks through the snow.我们循着雪地上他留下的脚印走。【考点】 注意下面两个与track有关的短语:keep track通晓事态, 注意动向例如:He reads the newspapers to keep track of current events.他阅读报纸以掌握时事动态。I find it difficult to keep track of my old friends.与我的老朋友保持联系, 我觉得很难。lose track失去联系例如:I've lost track of all my old school friends.我与所有老校友都失去了联系。The police lost track of the criminal.警方失去了罪犯的线索。

train--train n.系列;火车The telephone rang and interrupted my train of thought.电话一响打断了我的思路。【考点】 注意train作动词, 作“训练, 培养”讲。例如:I've trained my dog to fetch my slippers.我把狗训练得能给我叼拖鞋。She is training to be a doctor.她正在受训当医生。

transaction--transaction n.办理;交易;事务He attends to the transaction of important business himself.他亲自处理重要事务。【考点】 注意transaction的名词复数形式, 作“会报, 学报”讲。例如:Volume 3 of the Transactions of Philosophical Society哲学学会会报第3卷The transactions of our university focus on economic management and social science.我们大学的学报主要刊登经济管理和社会学的文章。

travel--travel n.旅行Travel will free a man from prejudices.旅行可以消除人的偏见。【考点】 travel泛指旅游, 既可用作不可数名词表示抽象意义上的旅游, 也可用作可数名词表示前往多处的一次性长时间的旅游, 但此时常用复数。例如:My hobbies are travel and stamp-collecting.我的业余爱好是旅游和集邮。Mr. Wang wrote a book about his travels.王先生写了一本关于他的旅游经历的书。

treat--treat v.论述;治疗;对待, 处理;款待The lecture did not treat the subject very thoroughly.那演讲者没详尽地阐述这一问题。【考点】 表示“用……款待某人”, 要用treat sb.to结构。例如:The teachers were treated to movies on Teacher's Day.教师节那天请老师们看了电影。If you come tommorrow, I will treat you to a good meal.如果明天你能来, 我将好好款待你一顿。

treaty--treaty n.条约The two countries concluded a treaty of peace.这两个国家缔结了和平条约。【考点】 treaty表示“条约”, 常用的固定搭配有:enter into a treaty with(与……缔结条约);make a treaty with…(与……订约);draw a treaty(起草条约)等。

tremble--tremble v.颤抖;摇动His voice trembled with rage.他气得声音都颤抖了。【考点】 辨析tremble, shake和quiver:这几个词都有“颤抖, 摇动”的含义。tremble表示“颤抖”, 用途较广, 人或物都适用。用于人时, 多指因恐惧、盛怒、或情感非常激动而“发抖”。例如:When she heard the news, she trembled all over with rage.当她听到这个消息的时候, 她气得浑身发抖。shake表示“摇动, 颤抖”, 它所着重的是“摇动的动作”。例如:The man was so angry that he shook his fist in my face.这个人非常恼火, 以至于在我面前挥了挥拳头。quiver表示“颤抖”, 指轻微地抖动或颤动。可用于树叶、虫翼或人的嘴唇等发出的声音。例如:The leaves quivered in the breeze.树叶在微风中颤动。

trial--trial n.试验, 考验;审讯He gave the machine another trial to see if it would work.他再次试用了那机器, 看看是否好用。【考点】 be on trial受审;在试验中;经试验后例如:He was on trial for theft.他因偷窃而受审。This new method is on trial.这个新方法正在试用中。This method was found on trial to be practicable.经过试验发现这种方法是可行的。

trifle--trifle n.小事, 少量 v.玩弄, 嬉耍It's silly to quarrel over the trifles.为小事争吵是愚蠢的。【考点】 trifle with玩弄, 逗弄例如:You should not trifle with your health.你切不可玩忽自己的健康。It's wrong of you to trifle with the girl's affections.你玩弄那女孩的感情是不对的。

trip--trip n.旅行, 远足The trip can be done comfortably in five days.这次旅行有5天的时间就可以玩得很舒服了。【考点】 注意trip作动词, 作“绊倒”、“失足”讲。例如:The boy put his leq out to trip the teacher.那个男生伸出腿要把老师绊倒。She tripped over the cat and fell.她让猫绊了一跤。

truth--truth n.真实, 真相;真实性;真理You must always tell the truth.你要永远说实话。【考点】 in truth实际上, 的确例如:It was in truth a miracle.这确实是个奇迹。The ugly frog was in truth a handsome prince.那只丑陋的青蛙实际上是英俊的王子。

try--try v.试用;努力, 试图I've tried this new detergent with excellent results.我试用了这种新型洗涤剂, 效果很好。【考点】 try作动词, 还有“审讯”、“审理”之意。例如:They're going to try him for murder.我们将以杀人罪审判他。He was tried for treason that wronged him.他被判为叛国罪, 这是冤枉了他。

tune--tune v.调音, 调节 n.调子, 曲调The orchestra tuned their instruments.交响乐队调节乐器。【考点】 tune in(to)调谐, 收听例如:You are not properly tuned in.你没有把收音机调准。Tune in next week at the same time.请在下周同一时间注意收听。

type--type n.类型Men of his type are not to be trusted.像他那一类型的人不可信赖。【考点】 比较type, class, kind和sort:这几个词都表示“种类”, 但用法不同。class为正式用语, 带技术色彩, 不如上述其他词用得广泛, 指门类、种类或优劣等级, 还表示阶级或社会地位。例如:He only sells high-class materials in his shop.他的铺子只出售高级衣料。kind为普通用语, 指属于同一种类、具有同样基本属性的事物, 在非正式场合还可系统表示个人对事物的评价与看法。如:the best kind of TV set(最好的一种电视机)。sort较kind更随便, 多用于口语, 可与kind交换使用, 其含义较含糊, 有时只表示“大概这种”的意思;有时又掺杂说话人的主观色彩, 含轻蔑贬低之意。例如:I'll never do this sort of thing.我决不会干这种事。type也为正式用语, 指某类事物中特殊的一部分, 独具一格, 有自己的特征。例如:It's a seedless type of orange.这是一种无核橘。

understand--understand v.懂, 理解His behaviour is hard to understand.他的行为难以理解。【考点】 注意understand除作常见的“理解”讲外, 作动词, 还有“获悉”、“揣测”的意思。例如:I understand from him that you have lost both parents.我从他那里获悉你失去了双亲。Am I to understand that you refuse?我可以认为你是拒绝了吗?

understanding--understanding n.谅解, 理解I should like to have an understanding with you about this matter.我想在这件事上和你达成谅解。【考点】 on the understanding that在……条件下例如:I lent him money on the understanding that he paid it back the next month.在他同意下个月还钱的条件下, 我把钱借给了他。

uneasy--uneasy adj.不安的, 焦虑的I feel uneasy,I think something is going to happen soon.我深感不安, 因为我认为不久将有什么事情发生。【考点】 表示“对……不安或焦虑”, 应该说be uneasy about。例如:He is obviously uneasy about my health.他显然很担心我的健康。I feel uneasy about my friend's future.我对朋友的前途感到忧虑。

uniform--uniform n. 制服, 军服Policemen and postmen wear dark blue uniforms.警察和邮递员穿深蓝色制服。【考点】 in uniform穿着制服例如:He looks handsome in uniform.他穿上制服显得很英俊。They were in school uniform.他们穿着校服。

unless--unless conj. 除非, 如果不I shall go there unless it rains.如果不下雨, 我将到那里去。【考点】 通常情况下, unless等于if not, 它们二者可以换用。但在有些情况下, unless不能代用if not。例如:I'll be quite glad if she doesn't come this evening.她今天晚上要是不回来, 我才高兴呢。说明:上句中的if not就不能用unless替代。

up--up adv.向上, 在上面;往上游;起床The airplane flew high up in the sky.飞机在高空飞行。【考点】 up to起来;从事于;直到;轮到;胜任例如:What are you up to now?你现在在干什么?She went straight up to the door.她一直走到门口。It's up to us to give them all the help we can.我们有责任全力帮助他们。He is not up to his work.他不胜任他的工作。

urge--urge v.催促;强烈希望;鼓励They urge us to go with them.他们敦促我们和他们一起去。【考点】 urge后跟宾语从句时, 从句中的谓语动词应用“should +动词原形”表示虚拟语气。例如:They urged that the library should be kept open during the vacation.他们强烈要求假期开放图书馆。They urged that we should go.他催我们去。

use--use v.&n.使用, 应用They used force to persuade him.他们用武力逼他就范。【考点】 注意下面短语的含义:make use of利用例如:You should make good use of your time.你应该充分利用时间。put to use 使用, 利用例如:He'll be able to put his experience to good use in the new job.他能在新的工作中把他的经验派上用场。It's a pity to throw anything away if it can be put to use.如果扔掉可以利用的东西是很遗憾的事。

vain--vain adj.徒劳的;自负的I soon give up my vain efforts to attract his attention.我不久放弃努力, 因为要引起他的注意是徒劳的。【考点】 in vain徒劳, 无效例如:We tried in vain to get the actor's autograph.我们白辛苦了一场, 没有得到那位演员的亲笔签名。We protested in vain.我们抗议无效。

vary--vary v.改变, 变化People can vary their appearance by wearing different clothes.人们穿不同的衣服能改变外表。【考点】 vary强调阶段性的变化, 表示有某种差异或不同, 常用于vary between…and或vary from…to的结构中, 意为“由……到……情况不等”。例如:They vary in weight from 3 lbs. to 5 lbs.它们的重量由3磅至5磅不等。

venture--venture v.冒险;敢于 n.冒险事业The young man ventured his life to rescue the drowning child.这位年轻人冒着生命危险抢救快要淹死的孩子。【考点】 joint venture合资企业例如:He works in a joint venture as a department manager.他在一家合资企业上班, 是一个部门经理。

verge--verge v.接近, 濒临 n. 边, 边缘They seemed to be verging toward a quarrel.他们似乎要吵起来了。【考点】 on the verge of接近于, 濒于例如:The child was on the verge of tears when he talked about it.当这个孩子讲到这事时, 眼泪都快要流出来了。

very--very adv.非常;真正地He was very unhappy when he lost his dog.他失去了狗时心里很难受。【考点】(1)very用作副词时, 用于修饰形容词、副词或分词, 如:a very interesting book(一本非常有趣的书);very quickly(很快地)。(2)用在形容词最高级前, 以加强语气, 表示“最大程度地, 完全地”等含义。例如:I will do my very utmost to serve the people.我要尽最大努力为人民服务。

vice--vice adj.副的 n.邪恶;恶习The vice president helps the president by doing whatever work the president requests him to do.副总统辅助总统, 做总统要他做的任何工作。【考点】 vice versa反之亦然例如:They have supplied us with some information we wanted and vice versa.他们向我们提供了一些我们需要的信息, 我们也向他们提供了一些他们需要的信息。

victim--victim n.牺牲品, 受害者All of them are the victims of war.他们都是战争的受害者。【考点】 表示“成为……的受害者”, 应该说fall a victim to, 其中介词to不可以换成别的介词。例如:He fell a victim to the dagger of an assassin.他死于刺客的刀下。

view--view v.看待, 考虑 n.景象;观点;观察;眼界The subject may be viewed in various ways.这个问题可以从多方面来考虑。【考点】 in view of有鉴于, 考虑到, 由于例如:In view of the facts, it seems useless to continue.鉴于这些事实, 再继续进行下去也没用了。In view of the serious accident, we must punish him.鉴于这一严重事故, 我们必须处罚他。

virtue--virtue n.美德;长处We accept certain principles of religion and traditional virtue.我们接受某些宗教和传统的美德。【考点】 by virtue of由于例如:He was an object of interest simply by virtue of being British.他成为众人注意的对象只是由于他是个英国人的缘故。She is allowed to do anything as she wishes by virtue of the fact that she is the manager's daughter.由于她是经理的女儿, 她可以为所欲为。

visit--visit v. 访问;视察;常去 n.访问;参观I visited them at their residence as soon as I arrived there.我一到那里就去他们的住所拜访了他们。【考点】 on a visit to拜访例如:Jane decided to go on a visit to her aunt who now lived in New York City as soon as possible.珍妮决定尽快拜访一下她住在纽约的姑妈。

vital--vital adj.生死攸关的;重大的;生命的Fortunately the soldier's wound was not a vital one.很幸运, 那个士兵的伤不是致命的。【考点】 在 It is vital that……的句型中, that从句中的动词常用动词原形或should +动词原形, 表示虚拟。例如:It is vital that we move quickly!我们必须迅速离开。It is vital that you have a good start.有个好的开始是很重要的。

voice--voice n.声音, 嗓音;嗓子;语态The baby under three years old could not find voice to express herself.这个不足3岁的女婴还不具备表达自己思想的说话能力。【考点】 voice作动词, 意为“说出, 表达”。例如:The African delegates voiced their anger at the meeting.非洲代表在会上表达了他们的愤怒。He voiced his determination to correct his mistakes.他表示了改正错误的决心。

void--void adj.无效的;空的;缺乏的An agreement signed by a child is void.小孩子签署的协议是无效的。【考点】 void表示“没有, 缺乏”时, 后面常与介词of连用。例如:That part of the town is completely void of interest for visitors.城镇的那一部分对参观者毫无吸引力。His style is void of affectation.他的文风毫不矫揉造作。

volunteer--volunteer n.自愿者 v.自愿提供The fighting unit was composed of volunteers.那支战斗部队由志愿兵组成。【考点】 volunteer to do自愿做例如:Tom volunteered to write to the paper.汤姆志愿给报纸写文章。He volunteered to donate his blood to this wounded man.他自愿为这个受伤者献血。

wage--wage n.工资, 报酬The efficient workers are supposed to get good wages.工作效率高的工人应该拿优厚的报酬。【考点】 注意wage作动词, 作“进行”、“开展”讲。例如:They vowed to wage war against anyone who attacked the kingdom.他们发誓要与侵犯他们王国的敌人进行战斗。The controversy has waged for several months.这场论战已经开展了好几个月。

wait--wait v.等候, 等待I can tell you something you've been waiting to know.我可以告诉你一件你一直等着想要知道的事。【考点】 wait on侍候例如:Confined to bed, she needed to be waited on in everything.由于卧病在床, 她事事都要别人侍候。That's how he waited on his customers.他就是这样接待顾客的。

want--want v.需要;希望;缺少What the play now wants is some modification of the plot.这个剧本现在所需要的就是对某些情节做一些修改。【考点】 注意want作名词时, 有“必需品”之意。例如:I will supply all your essential wants.我将向你提供全部的生活必需品。Food and water are primary wants of human life.食物和水是人类生活最基本的必需品。

ward--ward n.病房;行政区;受监护He is in a surgical ward of the local hospital.他住在本地医院的外科病房。【考点】 注意ward还用作动词, 意为“避开;档开;挡住;招架”, 通常和off连用。例如:By eating and sleeping properly, the boy tried to ward off a cold.那男孩饮食适当, 睡眠充足, 以此预防感冒。Fortunately I warded off the criminal's dagger.幸好我避开了罪犯的匕首。

warm--warm v.(使)变暖The soup is warming in the pot over the fire.汤正在炉子上的锅里热着呢。【考点】 warm up变热, 变兴奋例如:We were so cold, we thought we'd never warm up.我们冻得很厉害, 以为再也暖和不过来了。She warmed up as she went on with her story.她一面叙述, 一面激动起来。

warn--warn v.警告, 告诫He warned us that there were pickpockets in the crowd.他警告我们说, 人群里有扒手。【考点】 warn的使用结构很丰富, 可以跟从句、of或about引起的介词短语、动词不定式的复合结构和against引起的介词短语等。例如:His friend warned him not to be involved in any crime.他的朋友警告他不要卷入犯罪活动。The policeman warned the children against roller-skating in the street.警察告诫孩子们不要在马路上溜旱冰。

way--way n.方法;道路;习惯Foreign countries have a different way of life from ours.外国人的生活方式与我们的不同。【考点】 注意下面几个与way有关的短语:by the way顺便提一下, 顺路, 另外例如:The touring actress visited some friends by the way.女演员在巡回演出时顺路看望了几个朋友。The girl, by the way, is the orphan of a couple of revolutionary martyrs.顺便提一下, 这个女孩子是革命烈士夫妇的女儿。in no way决不例如:We can in no way allow this to continue.我们决不允许这样的行为再持续下去了。He is in no way to blame.一点儿也不能怪罪他。make one's way前进, 行进例如:In the evening we made our way to the appointed meeting place.到了晚上, 我们就向约定会面的地方去。make way让路, 开路例如:All the traffic has to make way for a fire-engine.所有的车辆都停下来给消防车让路。

wear--wear v.穿, 戴Granny doesn't wear spectacles except when she reads.老奶奶不看书时就不戴眼镜。【考点】 注意下面几个与wear有关的短语:wear off逐渐消逝例如:The nap of the coat has been worn off.外衣的绒毛磨得几乎没有了。The effect of the drug has worn off.药力已经消失了。wear out用破, 磨损;耗尽, 使精疲力尽例如:I have worn out my favorite coat.我把最心爱的大衣穿坏了。They were all worn out with this hard work.干了这么重的活, 他们都疲惫不堪了。

weep--weep v.(为……)流泪;(为……)哭泣The patriotic poet wept the misfortune of his mother land.这位爱国诗人曾为祖国的不幸而流泪。【考点】 weep for悲叹, 哀悼, 为……伤心例如:All the people on the spot wept for the deceased.在场的所有人都为死者哀悼。I wept for the loss of your husband.我为你失去丈夫而感到悲伤。

weigh--weigh v.称……的重量;重达Mrs. Smith weighed herself and found she had gained another two pounds.史密斯夫人称了体重, 发现又增加了两磅。【考点】 weigh作动词还作“衡量”、“权衡”、“考虑”讲。例如:You should weigh the advantages and disadvantages before you act.在行动之前你应该权衡利弊。At the meeting everybody weighed his words before he was asked to speak.在会上每个人发言前都考虑过自己应当怎样措词。

well--well n.井, 水井 adv.好好地The farmer pumped all his water from a well with a windmill.那个农民用风车从井里面抽出他的全部用水。【考点】 注意well作形容词, 意为“健康的”。例如:I'm not feeling very well.我觉得身体不太舒服。Well babies are usually happy babies.健康的孩子一般就是幸福的孩子。

what--what adj.所……的;怎么样 pron.什么The little boy used little strength what he had to push the door open.那小孩用他仅有的一点力气把门推开。【考点】 what if如果……将会怎样, 即使……又有什么要紧例如:What if they do not come?如果他们不来, 怎么办呢?What if it rains?即使天下雨又有什么关系呢?

when--when conj.当……时, 那时It was snowing when he arrived at the construction site.他到达工地时, 天正在下雪。【考点】 注意when作连词时, 也有“可是, 然而”之意。例如:Why do you continue to sleep when you know that I am trying to talk to you?既然你知道我要和你说话, 那为什么还要继续睡觉?He usually walks when he might ride.虽然有车可乘, 可他通常总是步行。

while--while conj. 尽管;然而, 当……时 n.一会儿While you are doing your best I really do not think this work is good enough.虽然你认为你在尽力而为, 可是我却认为这项工作做得还不够好。【考点】 注意while作动词, 作“消磨(时间)”讲。例如:Mary whiles the time away by reading newspaper.玛丽通过看报纸来打发时间。She whiled away the hours of waiting by looking at the shops.她以逛商店的方式把好几个小时的等候时间消磨掉了。

whole--whole n.全部, 全体 adj.完整的, 全体的The whole of one week was spent in sunbathing on the beach.整整一个星期都在沙滩的日光浴中度过。【考点】 on the whole总的来说例如:On the whole, I am quite satisfied with the experiment.总的说来, 我对这实验还是很满意的。I think our trip was very successful on the whole.我认为我们的旅游总的来说是成功的。

will--will aux.&v.决心要;总是;将会He will keep trying until he is successful.他决心干下去, 直到成功。【考点】 注意will作名词, 有“遗嘱”之意。例如:The scholarship was founded under the will of the late educator.这笔奖金是根据这位已故教育家的遗嘱设立的。In his will he left all his money to his wife and children.他在遗嘱中把所有的钱都留给了妻子和孩子。

wipe--wipe v.& n. 擦, 揩It takes time to wipe the windowpanes dry and clear.把窗户玻璃擦干净需要时间。【考点】 wipe out擦去;消灭例如:It is months since he wiped out the fuel tank.他好几个月没有擦洗油箱了。The defence minister proclaimed that the invading army had been wiped out.国防部长宣布入侵部队已被歼灭。

word--word n.消息;诺言;单词Words came that the prices of foodstuffs will be revised.有消息说食品价格要调整。【考点】 注意下面与word有关的短语:in a word总而言之例如:We can not accept these terms in a word.总之, 我们不能接受这些条件。in other words换句话说, 也就是说例如:He became, in other words, a great hero.换句话说, 他成了一名英雄。keep one's word守信用例如:Your must keep your word if you promised to take the children to the cinema.如果你答应过带孩子们去看电影就一定要守信用。

work--work v.工作, 运转 n.工作;职业;产品The engine worked wonderfully.发动机运行情况好极了。【考点】 注意下面与work有关的短语:work out解决, 算出;设计出, 制定出例如:She worked out the problem with no difficulty.她毫无困难地解决了这个问题。A list of candidates was worked out after full consultation.经过充分协商拟定了候选人名单。work up引起;逐渐上升例如:He tried to work up the enthusiasm of the crowd.他试图鼓动起群众的热情。The thunderstorm began to work up.雷雨开始加剧。

workshop--workshop n.车间, 工场He injured his hand while operating one of the machine tools in the workshop.他在车间里操纵机床时手受了伤。【考点】 注意 workshop还作“专题讨论会”讲。例如:We have an English workshop here every summer.我们每年夏季都要在这里举办英语研讨班。I took part in a summer workshop in short-story writing.我参加了一个短篇小说暑期写作班。

world--world n.世界, 领域;世间;全世界He plans to enter the business world after college.他打算大学毕业后进入商业界。【考点】 in the world到底, 究竟例如:What in the world are you worrying about?你担心的到底是什么呀?Who in the world was it?那究竟是谁呢?

worth--worth adj.值……的;价值……的It's worth much more than I paid for it.它值的钱比我能付的要高得多。【考点】 worth作形容词, 后面可跟表示价钱的名词或跟动名词, 但不可以跟动词不定式。跟动名词时, 主要用在以下两种结构中:①用先行词it作主语。例如:It is not worth getting upset.不值得灰心丧气。②用名词或代词作主语, 此时的主语就是动名词的宾语。例如:The book is worth reading.这本书值得一读。

write--write v.写, 写(字, 信, 函)He wanted to write his own thoughts.他想把自己的想法写出来。【考点】 write off报废, 勾销, 注销例如:They wrote the car off.他们将那辆汽车报废了。The debt was written off as uncollectable.这项债款已经作为呆账勾销了。

wrong--wrong adj.错误的, 不道德的 adv.错, 不对The postman knocked at the wrong door.邮递员敲错了门。【考点】 go wrong发生故障, 出毛病例如:The plan didn't succeed, but I can't see where I went wrong.这个计划没有成功, 但我看不出我错在哪儿。Something has gone wrong with the television set.这部电视机发生了故障。

yet--yet adv.已经, 更, 仍然 conj. 然而, 但是We offered a considerable sum of money, but they charged a yet higher price.我们出价已很高, 可是他们要价更高。【考点】 注意下面的两个短语的含义:and yet可是, 然而例如:The story may seem incredible, and yet it is true.这事说来似乎令人难以置信, 然而却是事实。as yet到目前为止, 到那时为止例如:As yet no ancient tombs have been discovered in this village.到目前为止, 这个村子里还未发现古墓。

yield--yield v.屈服, 出产 n.产量The general swore that he would rather die than yield an inch to the enemy.将军发誓说, 他宁死也不向敌人退让一步。【考点】 注意yield作动词时后面接介词to的两种用法:①介词宾语指人或敌人时, 表示“让步, 投降”。例如:The troops yielded to the enemy.部队向敌人投降。②介词宾语指诱惑、压力、要求时, 表示“屈服”。例如:She yielded to her daughter's request.她同意女儿的要求。

zealous--zealous adj.热情的The zealous demonstrators were ignored by the media.热情的示威游行者被新闻媒介忽视了。【考点】 zealous后可跟动词不定式, 也常跟“for +名词或in +动名词”的介词短语。例如:The farmers are zealous for a bumper harvest this year.农民们积极争取今年大丰收。My brother is zealous in scientific experiments.我的弟弟热衷于搞科学实验。He is zealous to please his employer.他热衷于讨好雇主。

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